cardiovascular system blood vessels and capillaries.txt

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mwinstom
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252568
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cardiovascular system blood vessels and capillaries.txt
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2013-12-11 09:18:21
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  1. ´╗┐Five types of blood vessels are?
    arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and vein.
  2. These major vessels conduct blood away from the heart?
    arteries
  3. These major vessels conduct blood to the heart?
    Veins
  4. These vessels are sites of exchange of substances between the blood and the body cells?
    capillaries
  5. These vessels are strong, elastic vessels that are adapted for carrying the blood away from the heart under high pressure?
    Arteries
  6. Arteries give rise to?
    arterioles.
  7. The three layers of the wall of an artery are the?
    endothelium, tunica media, and tunica adventitia.
  8. The inner layer of an artery is called the?
    endothelium
  9. The endothelium has what two functions?
    to provide a smooth surface for blood flow and prevents blood clotting.
  10. The middle layer of an artery is called?
    the tunica media
  11. The tunica media is composed of?
    smooth muscle fibers.
  12. The outer layer is the?
    tunica adventitia
  13. The tunical adventia and consists of?
    connective tissues with collagenous and elastic fibers.
  14. The only branch of the ANS which innervates smooth muscle in arteries and arterioles is the?
    SNS
  15. The contraction of smooth muscle cells in blood vessel walls which results in the blood vessel diameter decreasing is called?
    Vasoconstriction
  16. The relaxation of smooth muscle cells in the walls of blood vessels and which causes the blood vessel diameter increases is called?
    Vasodilation
  17. What is the MAIN determinant of resistance to flow of blood through a vessel?
    The vessels radius.
  18. These are branches of arterioles and help regulate blood flow to an area?
    Metarteriole
  19. These are connections between arterioles and venous pathways?
    Arteriovenous shunts
  20. The smallest diameter blood vessels are?
    capillaries.
  21. These vessels connect with capillaries and takes blood to the capillary?
    arterioles
  22. These vessels connect with capillaries and takes blood FROM the capillary?
    venules.
  23. The wall of a capillary consists of primarily of only?
    endothelium.
  24. These structures are located at the opening of capillaries and their function is control the flow of blood into a capillary?
    Precapillary sphincters
  25. What happens to the precapillary sphincters when when cells have low concentrations of oxygen, high CO2 or Low pH?
    The relax and blood flow increases.
  26. What happens to the precapillary sphincters when when cells have High concentrations of oxygen, low CO2 or Normal or high pH?
    The contract and blood flow decreases
  27. What condition will cause low O2, high CO2 and low pH?
    Cellular respiration
  28. What are the three functions of the capillary bed?
    1. exchanging gases, nutrients, and metabolic by-products between the blood and the tissue fluid surrounding body cells occurs in the capillaries.
  29. Biochemicals move through capillary walls by what three processes?
    diffusion, filtration, and osmosis.
  30. What is the MOST important means of transfer at a capillary bed?
    Diffusion
  31. What two things stay in the capillary bed and do not diffuse out?
    Plasma proteins and blood cells
  32. What are the two main forces found in capillary hemodynamics?
    Hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure
  33. What is the main source of hydrostatic pressure?
    Blood pressure
  34. What is the osmotic pressure called that is created by plasma proteins in the blood of capillaries?
    Colloid osmotic pressure
  35. List general types of vessels in which blood will flow from the heart and returning to the heart?
    Arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins
  36. Who does the middle layer of a vein differ from the middle layer of an artery?
    the middle layer of a vein is very thin and poorly developed compared to that of an artery.
  37. These structure found in veins keep blood flowing toward the heart?
    valves
  38. What structure of the cardiovascular system acts as blood reservoirs?
    Veins
  39. How do veins and arteries differ?
    Veins are capacitance vessels, arteries are resistance vessels, veins go toward the heart, arteries leave the heart, veins have valves, arteries do not, veins have thinner tunica media, and arteries have a thicker stronger one

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