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What is weather?
- the condition of the atmosphere at a particular place and time
- continually changing in a dynamic matter because of heat
What is climate?
the average weather characteristics of a given region
What is the Koppen-Geiger system?
climate classification system based on native vegetation
How many groups are in the Koppen-Geiger system?
- Groups A, B, C, D, and E
What are the Koppen-Geiger systems?
- A: tropical/megathermal
- B: dry
- C: mild/mesothermal
- D: continental/microthermal
- E: polar
What is the atmosphere made of?
- permanent gasses
- variable gasses
What are permanent gasses?
- proportions stay constant
- have little effect on the atmosphere
- Nitrogen, Oxygen, Argon
What are variable gasses?
- proportions vary with time and space
- play important role in atmospheric dynamics
What is the cryosphere?
- part of the hydrosphere that stays frozen year round
- (permafrost, ice caps, glaciers)
How do glaciers move?
- from high areas to low areas
- new snow forms at high elevations; ice melts, evaporates and breaks off at lower elevations
What are the two types of glaciers?
- continental: cover a large part of a continent
- alpine: streams that flow down canyons and valleys
What are some different ways to get paleo-proxy data?
- tree rings
- ice cores
- carbon dioxide
How can we study past climate changes?
- instrumental record
- historical record
- paleo-proxy record