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How job tasks are formally divided, grouped and coordinated w/i an org
- Degree to which tasks in an org are subdivided into separate jobs.
- Division of labour.
- Increases productivity
- Entire job is not done by one person. Many steps done by many people.
- Isolate traits that good leaders possessed
- Eg appearance height social class
- There are NOT a set of traits that guarantee a good leader.
- 8 traits of good leaders drive, desire to lead honesty integrity self confidence cognitive/emotional intelligence job relevant knowledge, extroversion (energetic and lively people)
Fielder Contingency Model
- Task or relationship oriented.
- Leaders face favorable/unfavorable conditions
- Leader-member relations, confidence, trust, respect.
- Leaders do not readily change leadership styles.
Hersey and Blanchards Situational Leadership
- Focuses on readiness of followers.
- Select best leadership style that employees will be most willing to follow.
Path Goal Theory
Leaders job is to help employees attain their goals. Provide direction/support to ensure their goals line up with org overall goals.
Leaders who guide or motivate followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying roles and task requirements
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
- 1. Physiological needs-food shelter drink. Physical
- 2. Safety needs-secuirty and protection from physical and emotional harm.
- 3. Social needs - affection, acceptance.
- 4. Esteem needs - internal factors. Self respect autonomy. External status recognition attention.
- 5. Self actualization needs - growth, achieving ones potential. Drive to become what your capable.
- Assumption that employees have little ambition, dislike work, want to avoid responsibility and must be closely controlled to perform efficiently.
- Essentially, a (-) view.
- Employees can exercise self direction, accept, and seek out responsibility and consider work a natural activity.
- (+) view of people
Herzberg's Hygiene and Motivators Theory
- Intrinsic factors - job satisfaction motivation
- Extrinsic - job dissatisfaction
- Employee compares his job input - output ration w/ relevant others and responds to correct any inequity.
- If put more in, get more out.
- Perception determines equity of situation.
- Social, occur naturally in workplace.
- No need or opportunity to engage in collective work.
Types of Teams
- Cross functional
- Problem solving
- Self managed
Stages of Team Development
Cross Functional Teams
- Employees who are experts in various functions.
- Task interdependence limited because each member works w/ other employees in different departments
Problem Solving Teams
- Employees from the same department or functional area who are trying to improve work activities or solve specific problems.
- RCMP drug task force is separate from normal RCMP
Self Managed Teams
- Employees w/ high autonomy who are responsible for an entire work process or segment.
- Team is responsible for managing themselves.
Teams that provide feedback and recommendations to org decision makers.
- Teams that use info technologies to link physically dispersed members.
- Eg. Microsoft staff in BC work w/ Washington
- Step 1
- People join group for work assignment or some other benefit.
- Define the teams purpose, structure and leadership.
- Step 2
- Characterized by intragroup conflict.
- Members accept existense of team, but resist control.
- A/ this stage, a hierarchy will be noticeable.
- Step 3
- Close relationships and cohesiveness develop.
- Set of expectations of correct behaviour defined.
- Step 4
- Team structure is fully functional and accepted by members.
- Purpose and roles are clear. Achievement leads to pride and productivity.
- Final stage for TEMPORARY TEAMS
- Group concerned w/ wrapping things up more than performance.
- Team prepares to disband.