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Where does the spinal nerve begin?
At the union of its dorsal and ventral roots as it leaves the intervertebral foramen.
Which ribs are known as "floating ribs"? Why?
Ribs 11-12. Not attached to sternum.
What type of joint is found between the head of a rib and the body of a
vertebra? What is the name of this joint?
Synovial joint (most movable). Name is called costovertebral joint.
Where is milk stored in the lactating breast?
What is the function of the retromammary space?
Allow the breast some movement, and isolation of infection from the chest. (Retromammary space - separates pectoralis major muscle from breast)
What major vein is found in the deltopectoral triangle? Where does this vein drain into?
Cephalic vein (superficial vein of upper limb - arm). Drains into axillary vein (from lateral part of body into heart).
What artery is the internal thoracic artery a direct branch of? Do you know another artery that also arises from this
- direct branch of the subclavian on both the right and left sides.
- Other arteries from the subclavian are the vertebral artery, thyrocervical trunk, costocervical trunk, dorsal scapular artery, and the axillary artery (VITAmin C&D)
Where do the intercostal veins, arteries and nerves lie in relation to the ribs? Why
is this location important clinically?
Along the underside of their associated rib in the intercostal space. In order to avoid damaging vessels, chest tubes need to be inserted into the bottom of the intercostal space, along the top surface of the inferior rib.
Why are the lateral and medial pectoral muscles so named?
From their positions relative to the brachial plexus. However, the medial pectoral nerve pierces the pectoralis minor LATERAL to the lateral pectoral nerve, which runs between the pectoralis major and minor. Both nerves innervate both muscles.
How to identify/distinguish between the external and internal intercostal muscles?
- External intercostals fibers run from the superiolateral to inferiomedial (i.e. “hands in pockets”); the
- internal intercostals run from the inferiolateral to the superiomedial (i.e. “hands on hips”). V shape overall