Musical genre called ENKA (See Fujie, p. 178). First appearing in the 1880s, enka represented a blend of Japanese and Western musical elements. The lyrics expressed contemporary social and political attitudes, but after World War II, these popular music songs became expressions of nostalgia and sadness. They began to disappear in the 1970s with the younger generation, but karaoke technology brought them back into use. “Naite Nagasaki” or “Crying Nagasaki” is in an old-fashioned style, depicting the sad departure of a woman's lover. Note how the singer represents the emotion and act of crying when she repeats the lyrics "naite, naite, naite." This recording was made in 1988, performed by Kandu Fukumaru for Nippon Columbia NH-210.