HIST 110B final exam

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HIST 110B final exam
2013-12-14 12:19:35
HIST 110b final Walia Troy Sargent

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  1. Nicholas II
    • Tsar Nicholas the II
    • Part of a power couple with his wife Alexandria
    • He is extremely devoted to his wife
    • Has 4 daughters and 1 son
    • They entered WWI
    • They did badly because they were only partly industrialized Had a shortage of military supplies (guns, ammunition, boots, etc.)

    • by 1915 the country does not have enough food Food is going to the military and the Russian people begin to blame their tsar
    • They also have an issue with inflation (700% in one year)March '17 their is a shortage of coal and heating oil
    • Riots begin in the major cities This begins the first Russian revolution

    Tsar Nicholas decides to abdicate
  2. Rasputin
    • The son is not healthy (named Alexei)
    • He has hemophilia (his blood cannot clot so any minor cut can be an huge issue)
    • Alexandria meets a monk from Siberia named Rasputin Russia used to be very religious (orthodox Christians)
    • Produces "holy fool"
    • A man who wanders the country while performing miracles and praying
    • You give him a place to sleep and a meal for the night before he moves on

    • Rasputin is a holy fool
    • They get along very well because Rasputin has "mystical powers" He can stop Alexei's bleeding
    • Alexandria becomes dependent on Rasputin
    • Rasputin becomes in charge of Alexandria and Nicholas because of this dependence Royal family is so caught up with each other and Alexei that they forget about the country

    • People don't like Rasputin because he gives bad advice to the king
    • There is a plot to kill him that was organized by the tsar's cousin prince Felix He sends a dinner invite to Rasputin Rasputin doesn't want to come but Felix says their will be women and Rasputin comes (he is a womanizer)Felix has lots of brandy and puts cyanide in it Prepared cakes with cyanide as well
    • Rasputin eats both but he does not die
    • And asks for more
    • Felix leaves and returns with a handgun in his pocket He shoots Rasputin in the head and Rasputin falls Felix moves away and Rasputin stands upRasputin runs outside and jumps in the river and doesn't come back up

    A month later his body is discovered
  3. League of nations
    • January of 1918 president Wilson began talking about the League of Nations
    • It's an international body he wanted to create that would try and prevent warfare
    • Bring all the countries together to talk instead of having war
    • If one country is attacked then all the others would come to help
    • Collective security This frightened the public because they could be at war again and again

    • 1918 there are congressional elections Big issue in the elections is weather or not to have a League of Nations
    • Democrats favor the league
    • Republicans do not want the league
    • Republicans win a lot of seats because the public doesn't want it

    • Wilson gets sneaky and he writes the League of Nations into the treaty of Versailles For a treaty to be signed in the USA the house and senate must both agree before Wilson can officially sign it
    • In 1919 there is a huge controversy about weather or not it should be passed
    • House passes it in September The senate will not accept it They vote on it and they say no
    • America does not sign this treaty
    • Wilson is extremely upsetHe had a stroke from itThey have a second vote in march of 1920 They say no again

    Because of the League of Nations portion of it USA never enters the League of Nations and has a policy of isolationism
  4. Kellogg-Briand pact
    1928 the Kellogg- Briand pact Kellogg is from USA, Briand is from FranceSays in the future countries will resolve their differences without warEvery country in WWI signed it By July of 1929 many other countries have signed it (~ 45 countries)Things appear to be improving
  5. Siegmund freud
    • From Vienna
    • Became famous late in his lifeHe believed that humans were driven by animalistic instinct

    • 3 components to our personalityID - desiresEgo - balance between id and superegoSuperego - conscience I'd and superego are constantly in conflict
    • Said you should sublimate your idChannel it in a positive directionYou could repress your idNot act upon it If you did this too much you would become mentally ill Would get neuroses

    • Invented PsychoanalysisBig part of this is dream analysisHe discovered people have very strange sexual instincts about their parents
    • Oedipus complex - little boy kills father and has sex with mom
    • Electra complex - little girl kills mother and has sex with dad

    Many phrases from Freud became popular in English Penis envy - woman who wishes she was a manAnal - meaning someone uptight Freudian slip - saying something that reveals something you didn't necessarily mean to reveal (usually sexual)
  6. Dawes plan
    Dawes plan in 1924We gave a loan to German government and loans to German businesses.So they could pay reparations to give to England and France to give to us Business loans are an economic stimulus

    created a circular paying system
  7. Stock market crash
    • Thursday October 24 1929New York stock exchange opensLots of people sell stock in huge quantities Lots of people begin dumping their stockIn this day 13 million shares are sold at low prices
    • Tuesday October 29 1929Massive selling begins againIn the opening 30 minuets 3 million shares of stock are sold16.4 million sold during the day as a whole

    Lots of people go bankrupt Which leads to unemployment because people have to close their businesses
  8. Lenin
    November 17 Lenin begins the Bolshevik revolutionOne of the first things he does is create a secrete police Called the Cheka Their motto is: death to the bourgeoisie Wore leather trench coats and leather hatsThey arrest/kill religious people, capitalists, No trial

    You get a civil war (1918-1921)Bolsheviks vs enemiesReds (communists) vs whites (non communist)July of 1918 the Cheka murder the tsar and his familyReds have an advantage because they control st. Petersburg and MoscowThey have these two cities with all the factoriesThey also have control of the railroad systemBolsheviks win (and start calling themselves communists)

    • Russia is almost completely destroyed Russia is renamed the U.S.S.RTheir economy is not good (their only operating at 20% capacity)
    • Lenin begins "the new economic policy"Lenin is going to introduce a little bit of capitalism for a few years to get things back to normal then he can go to communism
    • Says people should open a businessHe talks to the peasants Says they should grow a few more crops then sell them, and do the same with their animalsThis policy gets things back to normal pretty quickRussia begins to prosperIn 1924 Lenin died and the policy continued
  9. Stalin
    • 1927 Russia got a new leader named Joseph Stalin He is born in 1879,
    • he is Georgian not Russia
    • He is a very angry manBadly scarred face

    He became friendly with Lenin in 1903 in London Stalin rises in the ranks of the Bolshevik partyStalin does very well for himself in Russia after the Bolsheviks have taken overHe becomes general secretary of the communist partyHe has the power to hire and fire peopleHe gains power slowlyHe takes over after Lenin

    Stalin ends the new economic policy in 1927Stalin has a plan He wants to industrialize Russia Make steel, coal, oil, and electric companies strong1928 he comes up with the five year planHe tells industries they have to produce a certain amount over five years The production in the above industries basically doublesBecause people are working longer with low pay

    • In Russia by 1933 there is very little unemploymentIn 1928 only 11 million Russians were working in factoriesIn 1933 23 million Russians were working in factories This low unemployment makes some USA citizens become communists
    • Russian secret police (now called the ogpu) keep killing people during this time

    • Russian agriculture
    • Stalin doesn't like pheasants who own their own land (and their religious tendencies )He makes the pheasants share everything called collectivizationOne big giant farm with everything sharedPheasants really don't like this
    • Are some wealthier peasants called KulakStalin said the kulak's would never share so he had to get rid of themStarted dekulakizationKulaks are named criminals and neighbors could steal their property Mobs stole their stuffOgpu come to arrest them (some are killed)About 1 million killed
  10. New economic policy
    Lenin begins "the new economic policy"Lenin is going to introduce a little bit of capitalism for a few years to get things back to normal then he can go to communismSays people should open a businessHe talks to the peasants Says they should grow a few more crops then sell them, and do the same with their animalsThis policy gets things back to normal pretty quickRussia begins to prosper
  11. Hitler
    • Adolf Hitler. 1889-1945• Born in Austria-Hungary. Main city: Vienna. He was born from Braunau.o He hated his father. He was always get beaten. He loved his mother who had huge blue eyes. His father dies when Adolf was 13. He now has his mother to himself. When he was 16, his mother got cancer…no treatment. • When he was 19: mother died. Leaving him an orphan. His mother left him some money in her will.
    • o He moved to Vienna in 1908. Spending the money quickly. He became homeless.o He liked art. He was a landscape painter. He wanted to become a professional artist.• Hitler applied to the Vienna Academy of Art. He gets rejected twice. They tell him he is better as an architect. The committee in charge of his rejections was Jewish.

    Hitler moves to Munich from ViennaIn August 1914 hitler volunteers to the German army for WWI He ends up on the western front He raises to the rank of corporealWins the highest medal (the iron cross) twinedOct 18 he is blinded (temporarily) by gas and is sent back to Germany to recoverWhile in the hospital Germany gives upHe is heartbroken that Germany lostHis vision returns in spring of 1919

    And the German government gives him a job Spy on new political parties He goes to the German workers party meeting8 people, and he likes themThey share many of his beliefs He then leaves the army and joins the German workers partyHe quickly becomes the leader and changes the name To the national socialist German workers party or naziThey are centered in Munich and don't gain too many followersHe wants to take over the countryTake over Munich then march on Berlin and take over Germany

    This is called the Beer hall putsch He goes into a bar and gets people's attention then called for revolutionThey ignored him and he is thrown in jailWhile in jail he writes mein Kampf He is basically influenced by social DarwinismHe thought that Aryan people were the most fit to survivePoland, Russia, and France were not Arian Jewish people were the lowestHe joins politics again after getting outHe runs his party for the reichstag (German congress) in 1928He only gets 2.6% of the vote (not good)Great Depression happensNazism becomes more popular1930 election the nazi party got 18% of the vote1932 election the nazi party got 37% of the vote

    Hitler wants to become chancellor or prime minister of Germany The president of Germany appoints the chancellor Hindenburg was the president at the timeHindenburg hates hitler Nazis are pressuring Hindenburg January 1933 hitler becomes chancellor He immediately arrests his enemiesKills or puts them in prisonTakes control of news and radio March 1933 the reichstag building is burned to the groundHitler tells people that it is a national emergencyHe wants German congress to give him special powers to deal with the emergencyThe pass a bill called the enabling actEnables hitler to do whatever he wants Hitler immediately gets rid of all lawsHe was legally made dictator Hindenburg dies in 1935Hitler makes himself president as well as chancellorCalls himself fuehrer
  12. Rape of nanjing
    Rape of nanjing Japanese enter Nanjing in the winter and the soldiers gang rape womenThey kill 360,000 peopleThey are on orders to do these thingsOrders are, " kill all, loot all, burn all"Called the three allsAll the Chinese soldiers were captured and were probably executedUsed samurai swords to behead them
  13. Neville chamberlain
    • prime minister 
    • believes in an appeasement policy when dealing with hitler

    Britian and Neville chamberlain (prime minister) begin to get involvedHe says if you want I will come and talk to you so we can discuss what is going onChamberlain meets hitler in Munich several times to negotiateIf britian approves the taking of the Sunderland then hitler has to stop This is an appeasement policySeptember of 1938, hitler gets the Sudetenland and he isn't suppose to expand further
  14. Nazi soviet pact
    Hitler is getting ready to attack PolandHe is worried about the Soviet Union and Stalin He reaches and agreement with Stalin

    • Nazi - soviet pact
    • Germans can invade Poland
    • After the invasion Stalin will invade from the other side
    • They will split the country in 2 pieces
    • Baltic states would be taken by Stalin
  15. Battle for moscow
    • Battle for Moscow begins
    • German offensive against russia

    It is pouring rain because of the seasonEverything is muddyTanks move slowly or beakSoldiers are drenchedBy November it is snowAt night it is 0*FGerman tanks/trunks will not turn onGermans also only have summer clothing so they are freezingBy dec 5 the Germans are 19 miles from Moscow Russians are preparing a counterattackRussians have been hiding men in SiberiaThey have been brought to begin the counterattack60 more divisions show up Dec 5 the counterattack begins

    Germans are pushed backwards Russian army is actually 500 divisions
  16. Stalingrad
    Next to the oil fields there is a city called StalingradHitler wants to capture Stalingrad before he takes the oil fieldHe sends the German 6th army and the German 4th panzer army and Romanian and Italian troops Battle of Stalingrad Germans battle Russians street by streetBy November there is no end in sight Russians create a counterattackRussians surround the Germans Germans run out of supplies very quickly Hitler tells them to stay and fight Russians starved Germans for 2 months Ends in feb of 1943 Germans surrenderEvery German army who went in was destroyed Axis soldiers killed or wounded: 750,000Lost 1500 tanks Germans got their butts kickedGermans now know that they are going to loose
  17. Overlord/ d-day
    • Operation overlord Involve a huge invasion from britian USA, British, and Canadian soldiers are involved
    • Invade on June 6,1944 D-day We decide to land at Normandy Soldiers used5 USA division5 total from britian and Canada 2,700 ships needed to move all these peopleIn the Morning ships begin to move to FranceGermany is not preparedUse landing craft to storm beachesUSA looses 2200 troops the first dayBy the night the allies have established a position in Normandy And more and more soldiers arrive each day afterBy the middle of June it is clear d-day has worked
  18. Wannsee conference
    Big meeting called Wannsee conference in WannseeHitler was not present but many top nazi's wereGermans were talking about the "final solution" which was a euphemism for the holocaustJews would be deported to the east to workAlso a euphemism They actually would send Jews to death campsOnes who survive the work in the east will receive "special treatment" Also a euphemismFor gassing them
  19. Pearl harbor
    Pearl HarborUSA airbase in HawaiiJapanese air force and navy launched a sneak attack on Pearl HarborThey destroyed 3 battleships Killed 2300 sailors They were looking for aircraft carriers They didn't destroy any
  20. Midway
    USA submarine base at midway June of '42Japan wanted to have a decisive naval battle They decided to send their navy towards midway

    • They thought that the USA navy would come to defend midway in which they could destroy the rest of the USA pacific fleet
    • Japan has 4 aircraft carriers and 7 battleshipsUSA has 3 aircraft carriers and 0 battleshipsThis battle is fought by aircraft
    • First aircraft carrier battleLasts roughly 4 days (4-7 of June)USA finds the Japanese aircraft carriers first and sink 3 aircraft carriers on the first day

    By the time the battle is over we sunk all 4 aircraft carrierThey do destroy 1 USA aircraft carrierWe kill 330 of their pilots
  21. Iwo jima
    We want to get to Iwo Jima Japanese island with no civilians There 21,000 soldiers who never surrenderFeb of 1945 marines land on the island We beat them on the shore but they then go hide in caves on the islandsWe use a flamethrower to get them outWe try to negotiate but they do a bonzai chargeFighting goes on for 2 months but we winOnly 200 Japanese soldiers surrendered (because they were unconscious not because they surrendered) They tried to commit succeed when they woke up

    We used the island as a bombing base
  22. Okinawa
    USA wants to invade Okinawa Island 350 miles from japan Want to use it as a bombing base like Iwo Jima Large civilian population as well as a large military populationWe begin landing on Okinawa Involves half a million USA soldiers We land on the northern part of the island and the Japanese do not fight us hereUSA moves south and Japanese do a few thingsAs we fight the Japanese they use human shieldsSoldiers would put women and children in front of them relying on our culture not to kill themWe have to kill themThey arm civilians Rules of war say that civilian combatants are killed instantly when capturedSome of our soldiers go insane from this battleJapanese also use a new weaponKamikaze pilotsUSA looses 32 ships and damaged 400

    Battle lasts 2 months100,000 Japanese soldiers dead100,000 Japanese civilians dead

    USA wins the island
  23. Ketsu-go
    japanese had a plan called ketsu-goMeans decisive battle - battle that brings us to the negotiating table

    • They had hidden away 10,000 kamikaze planesThey know our ships will be transporting menWhile we are a few hundred miles from shore they would use the kamikaze planes and sink us
    • Then whatever got closer they would use kamikaze submarines loaded with explosives Then the landing craft will be attacked with kamikaze speedboats loaded with explosives

    • If any soldiers make it to the land japan will have 65 divisions waiting at the beaches
    • Civilian militia is behind the soldiers
  24. Bataan death march
    Bataan death marchPlace in the PhilippiansTook place in march 1942A bunch of USA soldiers and Philippians men surrendered to the Japanese They were told to march through the jungle to get to a prisoner of war campThey had to march 75 milesJapanese do not give them any food or waterThey would bayonet the people do drank or ate from the jungleGuards beat the prisoners with golf clubs9,000 died total
  25. Cuban missile crisis
    Cuban missile crisis Closest the world ever came to atomic warOctober of 1962Cuba was a communist country (communist revolution started in 1958 by Fidel Castro)USA didn't like thisWe wanted to overthrow the Cuban government (John f Kennedy)

    • (JFK)Invade not using American soldiers but using anti communist Cubans (acc)CIA trains the Cubans in Guatemala for their return to Cuba to defeat FidelApril 1961 the invasion is approved1500 acc were sent They landed at the bay of pigs
    • Cuban army unfortunately comesAll 1500 are killed or capturedThey are interrogated and Fidel found out USA did itFidel begins talking to the Soviet UnionNikita Khruschev is the Russian leader
    • Khruschev asks Fidel if he wants revengeOffers nuclear weapons to CubaRussian ships visit Cuba during the summer and contain ICBMS and h bombsThey are setting up missile bases on CubaOctober 13 1962 USA finds out about this through a USA spy planeIt sees missile basesPilot calls back to the USA and informs them
    • JFK is informed and he immediately calls Khruschev and tells him to remove the weaponsHe says noFor 14 days the world is within inches of warOct 22 JFK does a naval blockade of CubaJFK goes on tv and tells people what is going onPeople are extremely scared Oct 27th Khruschev gives inHe wants the USA to never invade CubaWe never have
  26. Ho Chi Minh
    Leader of Vietnamese was Ho Chi Minh Created the Viet Minh to fightThey cannot fight a normal war but use guerrilla warfare1945 Japanese forces surrender around the world because of nuclear attacks1945 French return and reoccupy it Ho Chi Minh continues fighting with the Viet Minh French cannot give up this area because it would make them look week1949 French select an emperor to rule Vietnam. Wanted to appease the people a little bitNamed Bao Dai

    French decide to leave Vietnam and have a conference to say how it will be ruled at firstThey split Vietnam into the north and the south Temporary split until elections are held for the leader (in 1956)Until then Ho Chi Minh would rule the north and Bao Dai would rule the southElections never happened 1955 revolution in south Vietnam Diem overthrew the emperor and became presidentSays the elections will not be held And South Vietnam declared itself as it's own countryWe become friends with south Vietnam because they are anti communism while North Vietnam is communist
  27. Dien bien phu
    The Viet minh do attack (battle of bien bien Phu)The Viet Minh take charge of the surrounding hills and take over the French airportBattle lasts for 54 days French are running out of foodDien bien Phu are exploiting their high groundViet Minh win 2,000 French soldiers killed)10,000 are capturedFrench decide to leave Vietnam
  28. John F Kennedy
    American president that dealt with the Cuban missile crisis begins our involvement in vietnam

  29. Linden B johnson
    American president that gets us deeply involved in vietnam

    Did not run for rlection
  30. Tet offensive
    North Vietnamese are preparing a huge attack The tet offensive Going to begin in January 30 of 1968Surprise attack on every major city in south VietnamFolk at home in USA hare able to see the tet offensive is able to watch because of new tv technologyViet Cong are trying to break into our embassyTo kill our embassy staffThis event is on tvThe tet offensive failed but USA home front still was upset and they didn't like Johnson muchPeople were horrifiedJohnson's approval rating was 36%Johnson goes on televisionHe says he is going to stop bombing north VietnamHe also says he is not going to be running for reelection
  31. Vietnamization
    Plan by nixon

    His plan was called VietnamizationWe would improve the quality of south Vietnam army and train them so they could take over the fightingAs we did this we would slowly withdraw our soldiers
  32. Martin Luther king
    by Martin Luther king jr (mlk) He was 26 and was a baptist minister He detested segregation Was a great orator and became semi famous for this (bus boycott) He believed in non-violent protest and was influenced by GhandiThis went on for a year After this the company desegregates the bus because they are going out of business

    Spring of 1963 MLK goes to Birmingham AlabamaWas the most segregated city in the nationBrings some of his followers The local police tell him to not come or blood will flowHe goes anywayThe police beat them, spray them with high pressure water hoses, and use attack dogsThis is all on television

    Mlk was put in prison and wrote a letterLetter on toilet paper (they wouldn't give him paper)Called the letter from Birmingham jailHe addresses people who say that he should let civil rights just happen little by little He basically says that they are wrongHe becomes a national celebrity

    Mlk goes to DC in August 1963 Gives the "I have a dream speech"Is televised and has a huge audience1964 he wins the Nobel peace prize MLK and LBJ get together to write civil rights laws1964 civil rights actVery difficult to pass because southerners in the house and sennant do not approveIt does go throughIt bans segregation It bans discrimination in hiring1965 voting rights actSouthern states would make registrants to vote who are black very difficult Poll tax only on black people, literacy test (fake made for them to fail), This actBans all special tests to voteSays if a state has a history of discrimination against voters the federal government will monitor their elections
  33. Betty Friedan
    Moderate feminismBegins with a book by Betty Friedan called: "the feminine mystique"She calls for equal pay for womenNo more quotas for schoolsNo more sexual harassmentThis book is extremely successful1963 congress passes the equal payMen and women make the same pay for the same jobAlso couldn't advertise for a man or woman specifically1966 Betty creates the NoWNational organization for womenMen can joinTried to spread and implement her ideas
  34. Gregory pincus
    Obsessed with sexSex is very casual Women are using the pill for birth controlInvented in 1960By Gregory pincusBy 1961 - 200,000 women are on the pill in USABy 1966 - 6,000,000 women are on the pill in USA
  35. S.c.u.m.
    Society for cutting up men (scum)Founded in 1968 by Valerie Solanis Wrote a book called: " the scum manifesto"Called for gendericideKilling of all menLocated in NYCWould go down the street looking for heterosexual couples and they would attack themTurd squadBranch of the movement that is menTo join you have to say that you will kill yourself Say that you are uselessHow did this end?Valerie tried to kill Andy WarholShe didn't like his painting purple MarylynShe went into an insane asylum
  36. Kent state massacre
    Kent state massacre Students hold an anti war rallyCampus president says they can'tNational guard attempts to disperse the studentsThe students pelt the national guard with rocks and bottlesNational guard fires tear gas into the crowdThey still are threatened and a few national guardsmen fire into the crowd4 dead, 9 woundedThis event makes the anti war movement very strong after thisThe week after this there were 1350 campuses with anti war movement rallies/ events