Speech Science Chapter 11

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  1. Occlusion
    • Refers to the contact between the teeth
    • Relates to the relationship between the maxillary and mandibular teeth
    • Occurs during chewing, biting, and resting
  2. Malocclusion
    • Refers to the misalignment of teeth
    • Often described as a bad bite
  3. Edward Angle
    • Presented the classifications for malocclusions
    • Described occlusions based on position of the maxillary first molar
    • Stated that maxillary mesiobuccal cup should lie on the mesiobuccal groove of the mandibular first molar
  4. Types of Occlusion:
    • Class 1 - Neutrocclusion
    • Class 2 - Distocclusion (Retrognathism or overjet)
    • Class 3 - Mesiocclusion (Prognathism or negative overjet)
  5. Malocclusions may stem from
    • Mouth breathing
    • Tongue thrusting
    • Finger sucking
    • Deglutition problems
    • Pencil biting
    • Poor posture
    • Growth of skull and jaw
  6. Malocclusions may effect
    • Articulation
    • Swallowing
    • Facial Structures
  7. Turbulence
    • A concept in fluid dynamics that refers to a chaotic stochastic flow
    • Includes momentum diffusion, convection and rapid variations in pressure and velocity
  8. Diphthongs
    • Sometimes described as blends of two consecutive vowels
    • A syllable is initiated with articulators positioned for one vowel, they then shift with a smooth transition to a position for another vowel
    • There is one vowel tract shape with one set of formants that transitions to another vowel tract shape with another set of formants
  9. Two main groups of diphthongs
    • Moving to an /I/ position: bay, bye, boy (tongue moves forward and up)
    • Moving to an /u/ position: go, cow (tongue moves backward and up)
  10. The production of consonants
    • Superior airflow resistance = Constriction
    • Constriction + Airflow = Turbulence
    • Turbulence + Molecular motion and rapidly varying pressures = Audible sound of consonants

    • There is airflow resistance more superiorly
    • Result is constriction in the speech tract
    • Generated by air coursing through the vocal tract and being constricted along the tract
    • Constriction generates turbulence in the air stream
    • The turbulent air, with rapid variations in molecular motion and rapidly varying pressures, in turn creates the audible sound of consonants
  11. Places of articulation (Where turbulence is generated)
    • Bilabial
    • Labiodental
    • Dental
    • Alveolar
    • Palatal
    • Velar
    • Glottal
  12. Manners of articulation (How the airflow is created)
    • Nasal
    • Stop
    • Fricative
    • Affricant
    • Glide
    • Liquid
  13. Voicing (Onset of vocal fold vibration):
    • Voiced
    • Voiceless
  14. The variations of consonant production generates...
    different frequency, intensity, and timing relationships in the sound stream, which we then perceive into specific consonant categories
  15. Resonant consonants
    • Formed similarly to vowel sounds
    • More open tracts and less constrictions hence there is less turbulence than most consonants and a vowel resonance is developed
    • They are not true vowels
    • Occur in initial and final syllable positions like most consonants
  16. 3 classes of resonant consonants
    • Glides
    • Liquids
    • Nasals
  17. Glides
    • /j/ and /w/
    • Sounds glide from one formant position to another
    • From either the /i/ or /u/ positions toward the formants of the following vowel
    • like diphthongs but have fast transitions
  18. Liquids
    • /r/ and /l/
    • move from a neutral position with the tongue in a retroflexed posture toward the following vowel
    • Greatest difference on the spectogram is the change in f3
  19. Nasals
    • Generate resonance from the oral and pharyngeal cavities
    • Generate resonance in the nasal cavity
    • The velopharyngeal port is opened/controlled which enables the speech stream to course through the nasal cavity
  20. 3 major properties of nasals
    • Reduction in sound between 800 and 2000Hz
    • Nasal murmur
    • Reduced intensity
  21. There are three main non-resonant consonant classifications
    • Stop
    • Fricative
    • Affricate
  22. Stop
    • Produced by complete closure of the vocal tract creating a complete obstruction of air flow
    • Typically occur at the lips, but can be produced at virtually at any point of the vocal tract
    • Stops have three phases:
    • Closing phase
    • Hold phase
    • Release phase
  23. Fricative
    • are produced by constriction at a place in the vocal tract
    • generating noise excitation as a result of turbulence
    • Five common points of constriction:
    • Labiodental
    • Dental
    • Alveolar
    • Palatal
    • Glottal
  24. Affricate
    • Affricates are generated by a complete stop followed by a slow release of excited noise
    • It is a combination of stop and a fricative
  25. Cognates
    • A pair of consonants that are produced with the same articulatory position and differ only by voicing
    • /b/ and /p/
  26. How vocal tract filters the resonant and non-resonant sounds
    The vocal tract shape filtered the glottal tone in vowel production due to vocal tract resonances, where resonant frequencies were enhanced and nonresonant frequencies were damped, if a white noise ascended the vocal tract some sounds would be enhanced and others damped based on vocal tract resonances
  27. What affects the resonance of the consonants
    • The constriction point of consonants affects resonance of the vocal tract
    • Consonants produced at the alveolar ridge have a smaller anterior cavity and a larger posterior cavity
  28. The difference in consonant resonant quality based on the place of articulation
    • Fry reports that the /s/ articulated at the alveolar ridge gas its primary energy at 4KHz
    • Whereas /sh/ which is articulated at the hard palate has its primary energy at 1.6KHz
Card Set
Speech Science Chapter 11
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