Speech science Chapter 9

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jadnebalasca
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252666
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Speech science Chapter 9
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2013-12-12 02:28:30
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The skeletal support system of respiration and phonation
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  1. Structures of the skeletal support system
    • rib cage
    • pectoral girdle
    • vertebral column
    • pelvic girdle
  2. Define the rib cage
    • Forms the structure of the thoracic cavity
    • Composed of 12 pairs of ribs
    • Becomes larger toward the middle, creating a barrel-like shape
  3. Parts of the rib
    • Shaft – majority of the rib
    • Head – posterior; articulates at the costal facets of its vertebra and its superior
    • vertebra
    • Neck– separates shaft and head
    • Angle of the rib – forms as the neck courses downward and changes to an anterior
    • direction 
    • Sharp demarcation between the bone and cartilage where sternum is attached
  4. Parts of the rib cage
    • (12 pairs of ribs)
    • 7 pairs of true ribs
    • 3 pairs of false ribs
    • 2 pairs of floating ribs
  5. False ribs
    They are the next 3 pairs of ribs that attach indirectly to the sternum by means of long costal cartilages or cartilaginous web that in turn connects to the other ribs and sternum
  6. True ribs
    the first 7 pairs of ribs that attach directly to the sternum
  7. Floating ribs
    bottom 2 pairs of ribs that attach posteriorly to the vertebral column but do not attach anteriorly to the sternum
  8. The sections of the pectoral girdle
    • Clavicle
    • scapula
  9. clavicle
    • Commonly called the collar bone
    • Purpose is to project the shoulder laterally to clear the barrel shaped chest so there
    • is appropriate upper extremity movement
  10. scapula
    • Triangular shaped bone posterior to the upper 8 ribs
    • The coracoid and acromion - attachment point of the clavicle
    • Glenoid fossa – attachment point for the arm
  11. Vertebral column
    • Protects the spinal cord
    • Composed of 33 or 34 interlocking vertebrae
  12. Name the parts of the vertebral column
    • 7 cervical
    • 12 thoracic
    • 5 lumbar
    • 5 sacral
    • 3-5 coccygeal
  13. Define the intervetebral disc
    • Fibrocartilaginous material
    • Acts as a joint
    • Acts as a ligament
    • Acts as a cushion: Fibrocartilage outer ring surrounding a microprotein jel
  14. Processes of the vertebrae
    • Articular process
    • Transverse process
  15. Articular Process
    Articulating points for each vertebra to attach to the vertebrae above and below
  16. Transverse process
    attachment points for ligaments and muscles of the spine
  17. Pelvic Girdle
    • Pelvic girdle is also called the coxal bone
    • composed of 3 individual bones: ilium, ischium and pubic
  18. ilium
    • largest bone
    • iliac crest-boarder; easily palpable by feeling the hip
    • sacroiliac joint -- where ilium and sacrum meet
  19. Pubic
    • upper portion of the acetabulum
    • forges horizontally to fuse medially at the pubic symphysis
  20. Sternum
    • Articulating plate for the ribs along the boarders
    • Lies directly in front of and functions to protect the heart
    • Composed of three sections: Manubrium, corpus, Xiphoid

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