nutrition final

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nutrition final
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2013-12-11 20:31:37
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nutrition final
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  1. life expectancy in 1900s (men and women)
    • men: 46
    • women: 48
  2. life expectancy in 2003
    • men: 75
    • women: 80
  3. why has the life expectancy increased? (3)
    • 1. medical advances
    • 2. decreased infant mortality
    • 3 decrease in infectious disease
  4. characteristics of healthy individuals over 65 (7)
    • fruits and veggies
    • increase in whole grains and fibers
    • decreased saturated fats
    • alcohol in moderation
    • breakfast daily
    • socializing and celebrating regularly
    • regular physical activity
  5. factors that decrease disease development (5)
    • weight stabilization
    • adhere to dietary guidlines
    • antioxidant and vitamin from plants
    • calcium, vt. D and physical activity
    • above avg. fruits and veggies intakes
  6. what do you need to do as you get oler? (2)
    • decrease caloric need
    • increase protein and vitamins and iron
  7. biological changes and nutrient consequesnces as you get older. (4)
    • stomach acidity --> decrease abs. of vit b12 and iron
    • decrease in lean muscle mass--> decreased caloric need
    • decrease in production of vit. D in skin --> increase need for vit D and calcium
    • decreased sensation of thirst --> increased water need
  8. factors complicating adequate diets (9)
    • deceased thirst and appetite
    • poor b12 and iron absorption
    • constipation risk
    • dental problemos
    • liver and gallbladder function decrease --? less ability to handle alcohol and fat
    • economic factors
    • isolation and depression
    • decreased mobility and strength
    • decreased thinking and memory ability
  9. reasons to have a vegitarian diet (5)
    • religion
    • health
    • environment
    • availability
    • affordability
  10. types of vegitarian diets (3)
    • macrobiotic: yin and yang diets
    • raw foods: 50-100% is raw due to belief that cooking destroys enzymes.
    • living foods: uncooked and fermented foods only but very inadequate.
  11. what do vegitarian diets lower the risk of? (8)
    • heart disease
    • stroke
    • hypertension
    • type II diabetes
    • chronic bronchitis
    • gallstones
    • kidney stones
    • obesity risk
  12. highly ____ vegitarian diets are ____
    restrictive; harmful
  13. when is it not best to have a vegitarian diet? (3)
    • pregnant
    • ill
    • a child
  14. caloric and nutrient difficiencies are more common in ___ in vegan diets
    children
  15. what vitamin is most likely to be lacking in a vegitarian diet?
    B12
  16. dietary recommendations for vegitarians (5)
    • provide sufficient calories
    • assortment of quality of nutrients
    • B12- cheese, eggs, milk, yogurt, whey powder, yeast
    • Vit D and calcium
    • complementary proteins
  17. what is hindering nutrition in developing countries? (3)
    • shorter life expectancies
    • infectious diseases
    • malnutrition
  18. key indicators of health (4)
    • pregnancy outcome
    • child growth rate
    • rate of breastfeeding
    • safe drinking water
  19. underweight children are an indicator of ____
    malnutrition
  20. malnutrition is a problem for __-__% of children under 5
    10-15%
  21. __-__% of women are iron deficient
    50-75%
  22. __ billion are iodine deficient
    2
  23. vitamin A deficiencies lead to..
    (3)
    • disease
    • blindness
    • decreased growth
  24. 1/__ of world is mild-moderatly zinc difficient
    3
  25. diseases due to deficiencies (2)
    • marasmus-lack of calories
    • kwashakor - lack of protein
  26. malnutrtition causes permanent delays in __ development
    mental
  27. bangladesh have 1/__ wells contaminated
    2
  28. what problems are in contaminated water? (4)
    • arsenic
    • bacteria
    • fertilizers
    • pesticides
  29. 250,000 deaths occur per year due to ___
    contaminated water supply
  30. programs to help fight hunger (10)
    • food banks
    • WIC
    • CROP
    • SHARE
    • shelters/soup kitchens
    • food stamps
    • grow a row
    • school lunches
    • gleaning programs
    • the hunger site
  31. what are the fat soluble vitamins?
    A, D, E, and K
  32. Vitamin A can be found in
    Beta Carotene
  33. what is Vit A needed for? (2) what happens if excess? (2)
    • embryo growth and night/ color vision
    • fetal malformation, hair loss
  34. what does vitamin D aid in? and what happens if defficient? (2)
    • aids in calcium absorption
    • rickets in kids and osteoperosis in adults
  35. Vitamin E is a group of __ naturally occurring compounds which vary widely in activity
    8
  36. vitamin E most related to ____ ability
    antioxidant
  37. Vitamin E is mostly found in ____ ___
    plant oils
  38. excess in vitamin E can interfere in ____ ___
    blood clotting
  39. Vitamin K aids in _____ ___
    blood clotting
  40. small amounts of Vitamin K synthesized by _. ___ in gut
    E. Coli
  41. what are the water soluble vitamins? (2)
    C and B
  42. Vitamin C acts as an ___
    antioxidant
  43. deficiencies from lack of Vitamin C
    SCURVY!!!

     
  44. vitamin C is needed for proper formation of ___
    collegen
  45. B1 is also known as
    Thiamin
  46. B1 is involved in pathways that extract energy from ___
    glucose
  47. deficiency in B1 results in
    Beriber

     
  48. Riboflavin is known as B__
    2
  49. B2 is involved in energy metabolism of... (4)
    • fats
    • ketone bodies
    • carbs
    • proteins
  50. deficiencies is rarely seen in B__
    2
  51. Niacin is also known as B__
    3
  52. B3 catabolizes ___(3) but not ___
    • fats
    • carbs
    • proteins

    not alcohol
  53. deficiencies of B3 result in
    • pellegra

    400 × 320 - ufhealth.org
  54. Vitamin B6 is needed for ___ metabolism and synthesis of ____
    protein; neurotransmitters
  55. deficiencies of vitamin B6 results in... (3)
    headaches, anemia, nausea
  56. excess in vitamin B6
    NERVE DAMAGE
  57. pantothenic acid is also B__
    5
  58. B5 is used in __ metabolism and obtaining vitamin __ from food
    fat; E
  59. Biotin is also known as B__
    7
  60. B7 is used in __ and __ metabolism
    fat and carb
  61. Folate is also B__
    9
  62. B9 is used in ___ synthesis and all ___
    DNA; division
  63. deficiencies in B9 in pregnant women results in
    neural development problems in fetus
  64. Cobalamin is B__
    12
  65. B12 is used in __ and __ system functions and __ formation
    brain and nervous; blood
  66. vitamins vs. minerals
    • vitamins are organic
    • minerals are inorganic
  67. trace mineral amounts
    less than 100 mg day
  68. major mineral amounts
    greater than 100 mg day
  69. essential trace minerals (9)
    • irion
    • iodine
    • zinc
    • selenium
    • copper
    • manganese
    • fluoride
    • chromium
    • malybderum
  70. deficiencies in iron result in
    anemia
  71. the best source of iron is
    meat
  72. iron aids in the formation of ___
    hemoglobin
  73. iodine is needed to form __ hormone
    thyroid
  74. deficiency in iodine results in (2)
    • goiters and cretinism

    413 × 550 - thyroidmanager.org
  75. major minerals (6)
    • sodium
    • potassium
    • calcium
    • phosphorus
    • magnesim
    • sulfur
  76. sodium aids in ___ ___
    nerve funciton
  77. sodium should nerve exceed ___ grams a day
    2
  78. potassium aids in ___ ___
    nerve function
  79. vitamins get destroyed in food in:
    • light
    • heat
    • exposure to air
    • alkalinity
  80. in order to not lose vitamins in liquid, you should... (2)
    • make soup
    • limit water used in cooking
  81. ____ is a good preservation method if veggies are blanched
    freezing

    blanching: destroys enzymes that would break down vitamins
  82. outer leaves and skins of most fruits and veggies are ____ in nutrients than inner
    higher!

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