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What is peritoneum? How many layers does it have?
- It is a thin transparent serous membrane that encases organs.
- 2 layers: Parietal peritoneum (lines abdominal walls) and Visceral peritoneum (lines visceral walls)
What is between the serous membrane peritoneum layers?
The space between is filled with serous fluid to prevent friction between organs when the move relative to each to other.
Are all the organs covered with peritoneum?
NO. Kidney, pancrease, and spleen are not fully covered.
So there are some disgusting specialized parts of the peritoneum what are they? What do they do?
- Mesentery: Double layer peritoneum that provides means of neurovascular communication and attaches organs to posterior wall e.g., the tissue connecting the small intestine. (contians: blood and lymph vessels, nerves, lymph nodes, adipose tissue)
- Omentum: Double layer of peritoneum that attaches the stomache to the body wall and other organs-hold it in place.
- Greater Omentum-fat laden fold of peritoneum that connects the stomach with the transverse colon
- Lesser Omentum- connects lesser curvature of the stomach and duodenum to the liver
Where does the abdominal cavity begin and end? What does it contain?
- It begins at the diaphragm and ends superior to the pelvic inlet.
- Contains the peritonuem and the abdominal viscera (organs).
What are the abdonimal viscera? What do they do? (hint 9, think of them all before you peek!)
- Esophogus: Muscle tube from pharyns to stomach 25cm long, passes throug esophageal hiatus, peristaltic action
- Stomach: Expandable, enzymatic food digestion (chyme), holds 2-3 liters, 4 parts (cardia, funda, body, pyloric where pyloric sphincter controls passage of food to duodenum.
- Small intestine: Duodenum C shaped-bile and pancreatic ducts drain here, Jejunum and Ileum (6-7m) absorption
- Spleen: Largest lymphatic organ, eliminate old damaged cells.
- Pancrease: Secrete gastric juices, insulin and glucadons for Islets of Langerhans. (head, neck, body, tail)
- Liver: Largest, metabolic activity, secretion of bile, storage of glycogen, process crugs and toxins,
- Gall Bladder: Bile storage and increase in concentration, release when fat enters the duodenum via the cystic duct.
- Large intestine: Cecum Colon (ascen, r/l flexure, xverse, descen, sigmoid) (recetum and anal canal)
- Kidneys: Post ab wall, remove excess water salts and wastes of protein metabolism. Ureters-run inferiorly from kidney over common iliac arteries, suprarenal glands or adrenal glands
What are the contents of the pelvic cavity? what doe they do?
- Bladder: Hollow pouch with strong walls. Resevoir for urine. Urethra muscular tube that conveys urine from bladder
- Female reproductive organs:
- Ovaries: produce ova and estrogen
- Fallopian tubes: transfer ovum
- Uterus: fetal developement
- Cervix: Neck of Uterus
- Vagina: Tuber from cervix to vestibule. Passage
- Male reproductive organs:
- Testis: produce sperm and test
- Seminal Vesicles: secrete thick akaline fluid
- Vas Deferens: begins in epididymis, just duct of seminal vesicle to for ejaculatory duct.
- Ejaculatory Duct: connect to Urethra
- Prostate: accessory gland, secretes fluid that helps form part of seminal fluid.