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- · Hero of modern science, cult figure, even in his own time
- · Symbol of strong connection between science and progress and human enlightenment
- · Studied at Trinity college at Cambridge University
- · Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, Opticks
- · President of Royal Society
- · Argued mathematics was the language of nature
- · Intellectual connections to people like Kepler and Galileo
- · God created the universe using mathematical laws and it is our job to discover that those are
- · Interpreted astronomy and represented it in a mathematical language, but this was more steeped in cosmology
- · Copernican – see Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler and Newton as the revolution; Newton put the finishing touches on this philosophy
- · Came up with a set of laws that were applicable regardless of where you were in the universe; explained motion in terrestrial and celestial realms – pulled together these two worlds
- · The way the apple falls on earth can be related to the way the moon moves in the sky
- · Universal law of gravitation (inverse-square law), elliptical path of a planet due to its center of gravity competing with inertia
- · Spent just as much time on Biblical Research and Alchemy, and believed them to be just as important as mechanical astronomy
- · Newton denied authority of the holy trinity, felt traditional theology has falsified the history of creation, wanted to recover the true story of the bible
- · Newton believed the ancients had a firm grasp of mathematical theories of the universe
- · Akin to renaissance thinkers, would forget to eat and go to the bathroom, was solitary so consumed in his studies
- · Alchemical research done in his research at trinity college
- · Occult qualities, did not reject like Bacon and Boyle did
- · Believed matter could be endowed with active powers
- · Didn’t leave causes of gravity open to interpretation, explained it as a force, agnostic about the causes of gravity, infuriated some of his contemporaries, accused him as defining it as occult qualities
- · Published in France
- · 28 volumes, 70 000 articles over 2800 illustrations
- · Edited by Denis Dederot and Jean le Rond d’Alembert
- · 2 themes, sovereignty over nature aka technology and progress
- · Celebrating science in the service of utility
- · Most ambitious and far-reaching intellectual project of the Enlightenment
- · French censors banned the book, conspiracy against public morals, pope ordered anyone caught buying the book to be excommunicated
- · Diderot’s aim was to provide to all educated Europeans the most current information on every subject of modern thought
- · Universal knowledge, belief of progress
- · Infused with social criticism
- · Leading salons of the enlightenment period
- · Used her wealth and home to bring together interesting and intelligent people – Diderot, d’Alembert, Catherine the Great of Russia, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Montesquieu
- · Financially and socially supported the Encyclopedie
- · Held high political power and censored Japanese interactions with Europeans, thus limiting cultural and intellectual exchange
- · Christianity seen as aiding the dominance of Western culture, Western ideas equated with Christianity at the time
- · Western learning became state-sanctioned and controlled
- · Tokugawa believed Western science would become a Western cultural force, science became a symbol of Western dominance
- · Feared that knowledge of Western science would spark interest in other Western culture
- · Point of cultural exchange between the Japanese and the Dutch
- · Implemented by the Tokugawa
- Deshima was a Dutch trading port in Japan and the only source of contact between Japan and the European world. This made it so the Dutch were the conduits of western knowledge in Japan. This allowed for some contact in an otherwise isolationist Japan. The main subjects of European science brought over were astronomy and medicine and the study of Dutch science was called rangaku. Christianity along with other western ideas were banned in an attempt to keep culture and the Japanese wouldn’t blindly accept western science, they had to learn it for themselves.
Hans Sloane was president of the RSL, a physician, and a collector of specimens from around the world. He first began by collecting botanical samples from both the Old and New world then expanding to shells,insects, fossils, minerals, etc. He collected samples for their rarity, not for their cohesiveness in relating to each other. He made a profit importing milk chocolate from south Africa and over the years his collection grew to be expansive and all the important minds of the time visited him to view his collection, Carl Linnaeus, Benjamin Franklin, and George Handel to name a few. At his death he established a trust which along with his collection formed the British Museum, the largest museum of the eighteenth century.
- - Sir Joseph Banks accompanied James Cook on his voyages around the world as a paying patron representing the RSL. His crew was so large and requested so many special resources that they almost took control of the ship and were not invited for the next voyage. Joseph Banks increased the scientific value of the expeditions and elevated the image of a scientific explorer. He increased the market for scientific specimens and science once again became tied to state activity. He also exemplifies the attitude of the time of mans dominion over nature.
Carl Linnaeus was a biologist and botanist in eighteenth century Sweden. He was most well known for creating the Linnean Tables for classifying species. He also created the hierarchical system of classification of kingdom, class, genus, etc. This was significant because it democratized the system allowing for anyone to use it. His table was considered essential for any biologist or botanist, they became small pocket sized field guides. Linnaeus was very significant as opposed, compared to Galileo or Newton for biology.
Saartje Baartman -
Sarah(Saartje) Baartman was an african woman born in South Africa in 1789. She was taken to England in 1810 by Hendrick Cezar. She was treated as a specimen instead of a person and exhibited around Britain and France in circus. This caused a large problem because This caused a huge controversy because slavery was outlawed in England so the show had to be moved to France. This showed supreme European rule but also the european attitude of classification and observation. It also exemplified how some Europeans, polygenists, believed different races were different species.
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach -
- Blumenbach was a monogenist in 18th and 19th century europe. He believed that all humans were one species but that certain races were superior, the caucasians were the best and that other races deteriorated as they moved farther away Europe to the east and west. Blumenbach did not intend for this pyramid to indicate a hierarchy of development or that inferior races were closer to animals. Nineteenth century racial theorists took this pyramid as an indication of achievement and used this to exploit inferior races.
Jethro Tull was a seventeenth and eighteenth century agriculturalist who aided in british agricultural revolution in the mid eighteenth century. He helped develop and perfect farming techniques such as drilling equipment that planted seeds deeper and more evenly spaced, increasing production. He also brought the idea of enclosure that increased production but was not profitable for poor farmers. He was significant in aiding to the agricultural revolution that free’d up manpower that would lead to people migrating to cities prompting an industrial revolution.
James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny that allowed for the quick production of textiles from cotton. Before the production of textiles was based on a family unit but not anymore. This shifted the main textile of british commerce from wool to cotton and helped contribute to the industrial revolution.
- James Watt improved on Newcomen's steam engine making it more efficient and able to run longer. This steam engine not only helped pump water out of mines but its production helped push forward the industrial revolution, leading to an increase in urbanization as well a helping developing the slums of England.
Factory Act (1833) -
The Factory Act of 1833 was a push by the british government to better the working conditions of people, especially children in the textile and other industries. It said that no children under nine may work in the factories, limited hours of children under twelve and provided a mandatory two hours of education a day. This was one of the first attempts to reform the horrible social conditions caused by the rapid urbanization caused by the industrial revolution. It was often said that the machines in the factories were treated better than the people.
Chadwick was a british politician who pushed for sanitary reform measures. There was an increase in pollution due to slums being formed in large cities causing contamination of the water and a decrease in public health. This was significant because it was one of the first attempt to curb some of the problems caused by the slums of England and the social problems that were present.
Alexander von Humboldt
Humboldt(1769 -1859) was the son of Prussian military officer who chose to be a travelling naturalist, following in the example of Capt. James Cook. He travelled across spanish America. His way of field work was new and unique because it combined exact measurements with intensive fieldwork and developed on overall interconnectedness among all living things, these three aspects would become known as Humboldtian science.
- was the most prominent of catastrophists and was employed by the Museum of Natural history in Paris. Catastrophism was the idea that the earth changed through sudden catastrophic events and this changes not only geological and geographical aspects but also leads to the extinction and change of certain species. Cuvier believed that these catastrophes were local and not global, disregarding the biblical flood.
The Ecole Polytechnique was an engineering and military school in France. It combined mathematics, physics, and chemistry because it had absorbed the artillery school. Science at the time was state supported and it was believed , particularly by Napoleon, that military and political strength was tied to technology and smarter soldiers. It was often complained that it was too theoretical to be useful as a military school. The Ecole polytechnique continues to be one of France’s best engineering schools to this day.
- was a mathematician and physicist, who laid the foundation for architectural and engineering drawings. He was also one of the founder of the Ecole Polytechnique. He was significant in the professionalization of science in Europe especially in France. In France military power was tied to technological advancements.
- /*Read page 223; once in the notes and once in text. Not a big deal*/
- was best known for his mathematical knowledge, his calculating engines (early calculators), and his criticism of the state of science in England at the time. He published in 1830, Reflections on the Decline of Science in England, criticizing not only the RSL but the governments attitude towards science as well. He criticised the RSL for no longer doing scientific research or science and called it an elite social club. The british government did even less to aid in science and was very laissez-faire. In response of either the government or RSL changing their ways after he published his article he founded the BAAS with some of his friends.
British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS)
- The BAAS was founded by Charles Babbage and friends in 1831. It was much more inclusive than the RSL or the Royal Academie des Sciences, which had tight restrictions on membership The BAAS was open to anyone and while they held meetings in London they also travelled all across England as well as to colonial territories such as Canada. This encouraged naturalists all over by providing a venue for the presentation of natural knowledge. Because it was more inclusive the BAAS had much closer ties with industry because it was open to small-business owners, schoolteachers, and craftsmen.
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Great international Exhibition (1851) -
The exhibition was held to celebrate the power of the british empire. The main attraction was the venue, the crystal palace, a hall built of cast iron and glass panels. It hosted thousands of exhibits from around the world including the latest in electrical telegraphs, motors, cameras, and exotic species from around the empire. It attracted over six million visitors and the profits went to help support science in Britain with schools being opened up such as Royal School of Mines and the New School of Science although it wasn’t enough to match France or Germany.
Charles Lyell -
was an english geologist and prominent uniformitarian. He wrote Principles of Geology . His theory of uniformitarianism was one that contrasted Cuvier’s catastrophism and had three main points. The three elements were that the forces acting today are the same as those in the past, that we must focus on observable causes and that the world is in a steady state. He also had evidence that there was reasons for extinction other than natural catastrophes suggested by certain fossils he had found. His theory of uniformitarianism also applied politically, supporting the conservatives and keeping the middle class in their place by disregarding sudden changes or “political” catastrophes. Lyell was taken seriously due to his high standings in the RSL, BAAS, and the London Geological Society.
was a geological theory on the origins of the earth and how it changes. It suggested that the forces of change that shaped the world are the same ones we observe today. It also suggested that we should focus on causes that we can observe and that the earth is in a steady state. Geology and natural science were not completely separate at that point, so the theory of uniformitarianism also applied to biology and although it pushed that there was no evolution the evidence was irrefutable but uniformitarians such as Lyell maintained that species did not go extinct due to catastrophes such as Cuvier or catastrophism had suggested.
Jean Baptiste de Lamarck
- was employed by the Museum of Natural History in Paris along with Cuvier. He developed his own theory of evolution outlined in his book Philosophie Zoologique, published in 1809, that didn’t have a concept of extinction, instead a certain species would evolve linearly into another without dying out. It proposed acquired characteristics due to internal forces, such as giraffes growing longer necks to reach higher food over their lifetime and passing on that characteristic down to their offspring. Lamarck was criticized for his theory and as a result was not taken seriously. This was significant because it showed that even in the nineteenth century people were thinking about evolution.
- was the grandfather of Charles Darwin. He published his ideas in a long poem, Zoonomia in 1796. This got him in trouble as a radical Jacobin thinker. Charles Darwin took this lesson to heart and was determined to establish his credibility before deciding to publish any “wild” theories.
- /*Read page 213, probably won’t be on the exam*/
William Paley -
- was opposed to evolution and the transmutation of species, instead believed all species were set and made by God. He was a supporter of the argument from design and had published Natural Theology (1802) as book to promote the theory of creation from design and to glorify God’s work. Other points in his theory were that species were set and unchangeable, that man is separate from nature, and the use of the supernatural in his explanations. This was significant at the time because it opposed Darwin’s theory and condemned it almost as being atheistic.
- /*Mainly from notes, read page 221*/
was the theology that the world was created from design, by a great watchmaker who was God. This was outlined most clearly by William Paley in his book Natural Theology (1802). This was the most socially correct way of thinking at the time about species as it included and glorified God the most and that lined up with the strong views of the church at the time. This theory and it’s support for God did deter Charles Darwin for a long time.
wrote an social-political essay Principle of Population as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society(1791). He theorized that at the rate the human population was increasing the amount of resources required would exceed the amount available leading to a struggle for survival. The New Poor Law (1834) split up the deserving and undeserving poor, ending relief for everyone except the most destitute. It forced the poor to compete for jobs on the market and speculated the poor were poor due to weak moral character. He believed that charity only aggravated the poor, that the poor population should be limited. The main point was that only the strong survived and that this was the law of nature. This was significant because it would later influence Darwin’s theory of evolution.
Natural selection is the theory that some members of a species are born with certain characteristics that are advantageous, and those born with these characteristics are more likely to survive. These characteristics add up over time slowly changing species from one to another. This theory of natural selection lead to Darwin developing his theory of evolution.
Alfred Russel Wallace -
- - was naturalist who had also developed a theory of evolution similar to Darwin’s. He had written a letter to Darwin telling Darwin about his theory and therefore forced Darwin to write and publish his own paper. Darwin had published his paper in 1859 and had received most of the credit. They shared much in common, travelling abroad to collect samples, their inspirations by Lyell and Malthus, and questions why species occur geographically closest to their closest relatives. Wallace claimed Darwin’s theory was more developed than his own and his book was called Darwinism(1889).
- /*Read pages 216 -217*/
was huge supporter of Social Darwinism. He believed the social darwinism could describe all societies, from simple tribes to complex european imperialist states. He also believed that once people were aware of this natural darwinism they had an obligation to reduce the numbers of the least fit citizens, the poor, and increase the number of fit citizens, the rich and high class. Social darwinism was seen as beneficial to humanity and was used to justify capitalism, cutting welfare, laissez faire economics, and exploitation and justification of inferior races. Spencer coined the term “survival of the fittest”, not Darwin who coined this term.
- was the taking of Darwins theory of evolution and natural selection and applying it society. It viewed the evolution of society as inevitable and once we were aware of it all civilized people had a responsibility to contribute to it. It also viewed some races, particularly caucasians, as superior while other where inferior. This meant that it was in nature for some men to hold dominion over others.
was a cousin of Darwin and coined the term eugenics. He took the idea’s of social Darwinism and added so of his own thoughts and theories. He published Hereditary Genius (1869) outlining his thoughts. He believed moral and mental facilities were hereditary and passed down through generations. He claimed that competition led to progress and charities that aid the poor impede natural progress. He claimed that families of reputation had these positive characteristics in their genes and lesser families had undesirable characteristics. He never considered the influence of social advantage of those from richer social backgrounds.
Hereditary Genius (1869)
- - was the book published by Francis Galton outlining his views on the hereditariness of moral and mental factors. He believed that a person’s morals and mental capability were hereditary, a factor of their nature rather than their upbringing.
- /*Read page 218, see Francis Galton above*/
Negative Eugenics -
- Eugenics was a term coined by Galton to describe morals and mental capacity being hereditary and the forced selection to create a better world by producing more positive individuals. Negative eugenics tried to limit the amount of “inferior” breeding as opposed to positive eugenics which encouraged “superior” breeding. This occurred by segregation and institutionalization of “inferior” people and races to control breeding as well as surgical sterilization to prevent undesirables, retarded, epileptic, and criminal, from breeding. This was practiced in Canada, the US, and most notably in Nazi Germany.
- /*Mainly notes, not in text*/
- was a French psychologist and the creator of the IQ test. He created the first test to help him identify children in the classroom who were having trouble with the curriculum and was simply trying to help them. He did not believe IQ was set number, he didn't believe intelligence was hereditary, and thought the IQ score was simply a rough guide.
Henry H. Goddard
- - tried to classify people based on their intelligence. He believed intelligence was a single measurable unit, it was definite, and governed by a single gene that was recessive to normal intelligence. Goddard then split people up into categories based on intelligence or mental age, these categories were idiots, imbeciles, and the feebleminded. Goddard believed that these people of below average intelligence were cause of social problems and that social problems could be fixed by weeding them out.
- /*In notes, not in text*/
family of feebleminded found by Goddard. He found that when a man had children with a normal women they produced for the most part normal children, but when paired with a feeble minded partner the chances for feeble minded children went up dramatically. One of the offspring went to one of Goddard’s schools for the mentally defective, she was rehabilitated and a functional member of society but still considered feeble minded.
had organized the elements in a simple manner by their atomic weight relative to Hydrogen. This idea was published in New System of Chemical Philosophy(1808). Although this did not provide much information it did change the way that elements were view up to that point.
did a better job by organizing the elements by both characteristics as well as their weight. He first made cards for each element listing their properties and then tried to arrange them in a pattern of