History Final Exam Terms/Vocab

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History Final Exam Terms/Vocab
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UNIT History Final Four exam Terms
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UNIT 4 History Exam. Final Exam. Terms/Vocab
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  1. Called for no expansion of slavery into newly
    acquired territories
    Wilmot Proviso
  2. Said that slavery must be allowed to
    exist as all states are sovereign and therefore equal in power. Extended to say
    that citizens have the right to move their property and that slaves exist as
    property.
    Calhoun Resolutions
  3. Allowed those who were forming a state to decide
    on the issue of slave versus free state, proposed by Lewis Cass.
    Popular Sovereignty
  4. Proposed by southern slave owners as they were
    paranoid that northern radical abolitionists were hiding/protecting escaped
    slaves, gave the north an obligation to the south.
    Fugitive Slave Act
  5. A way in which the slaves could “break away” from their master, Harriet Tubman was the person associated with it that was spoke about in class.
    Underground Railroad
  6. Admitted California as a free state, Utah and
    Mexico territories with popular sovereignty, Texas a slave state with smaller
    borders with the compensation of $10 million, Ended the slave trade that
    occurred in the nation’s capital, and toughened the fugitive slave act, Henry
    Clay, Daniel Webster, and Stephen A. Douglas.
    Compromise of 1850
  7. Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, Abraham Lincoln
    is famous for saying, “So you’re the little woman who wrote the book that made
    this great war.”
    Uncle Tom’s Cabin
  8. Work of Stephen A. Douglas that propelled him to
    stardom, designed to get individuals to move into unpopulated territory between
    Chicago and California, repealed the 36’30 parallel rules and embraced Popular
    sovereignty.
    Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854
  9. Trivia fact! First Republican elected was this
    person.
    John C. Fremont
  10. Big contributor to intensified sectionalism, result of popular sovereignty in theterritories, northern and southern support of individuals to go into statesthat lead to fights amongst the more radical individual, extreme violence.
    “Bleeding Kansas”
  11. Massachusetts representative who represents the anti-slavery movement and made a speech about the “crime against Kansas”,referred to southern senators by name and offended a South Carolinian senator who proceeded to beat the other with his walking stick.
    Preston-Brooks Affair/Brooks-Sumner Affair
  12. Slave who went to a free state with his master
    and then back to a free, encouraged to sue for his freedom since he had been in
    a free state.
    Dred Scott
  13. Decision that slaves do not have the right to
    sue since they are not citizens, the fifth amendment protects property, and
    that the 36’30 parallel has been unconstitutional from the beginning, results
    in slavery being allowed everywhere. Trial takes place in St. Louis.
    Dred Scott Decision
  14. Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in 1857
    Roger B. Taney
  15. Coherent arguments between two individuals that
    were viewed as important political steps for the individuals involved, the most
    talked about of which occurred in Freeport with regards to popular sovereignty.
    Lincoln-Douglas Debates
  16. Challenge by Stephen
    Douglas against the Dred Scott Decision, alienated Douglas and served as
    precursor to the election of 1860.
    Freeport Doctrine
  17. One of the most colorful characters in US
    history, radical, militant abolitionist who is considered a modern day
    terrorist, believed that he had been given the mission to abolish slavery and
    that if he did not God would punish him.
    John Brown
  18. Ammunition stores that John Brown planned to
    attack and take over so that he may be able to arm the slaves so that they may
    rebel against their masters and win their freedom.
    Harper’s Ferry
  19. The democratic party is having difficulty
    selecting one front runner and splits into two divisions of northern Democrats
    and southern Democrats, the Whig party disappears and turns into the Republican
    party with the moral goal of abolition with William Seward as their front
    runner.
    Election of 1860
  20. The names of the two candidates who received the
    most votes from the states in the Election of 1860, the election of one of
    these two individuals resulted in the first secession from the United States.
    Lincoln and Breckenridge
  21. First state to secede from the United States, was followed by six others.
    South Carolina
  22. The first battle of the Civil War, the
    confederates have commandeered a fort in their territory that the Union still
    claims as theirs and for this reason the confederate states considered any
    Union interference an act of war.
    Fort Sumter (1861)
  23. responsible for firing the first shot of the
    Civil War and was not responsible for the invention of Baseball.
    Abner Doubleday
  24. Individual who replaced Clay in the senate and
    felt that it was his responsibility to become the next “great compromiser”.
    Proposed a compromise that would guarantee slavery in the south by bringing
    back the 36’30 parallel
    John C. Crittenden
  25. Believed in important fortifications and
    tactical defense.
    Dennis Hart Mahan
  26. Complete opposite of the above believed that a tactical defense was weak and believed that offense was more important. Figured
    that battle would be more effective ramming a bayonet into those that cross his
    path.
    Antoine Henri Jomini
  27. This tool provided for much greater accuracy an
    dgave the northern state an advantage.
    Rifled Musket
  28. The main leader of the Confederate army in the
    battle of Manassus.
    P.G.T. Beauregard
  29. Sent to reinforce the main leader of the
    Confederate army waiting to intercept McDowell.
    Joseph Johnston
  30. Went to assist the two men mentioned above and
    told his men to stand their ground earning him the title of “Stonewall”.
    Thomas J. Jackson
  31. Abolishes slavery. Proposed by Lincoln. Helps turn war into a crusade against slavery. Freed 0 slaves in reality.
    Emancipation Proclamation
  32. After the emancipation Proclamation by Lincoln to abolish slavery.
    13th Amendment
  33. Came up with by the confederacy in response to Lincoln's 10% Plan. Denies the president's authority to issue these types of law without congressional approval. Beginning of struggle over reconstruction policies.
    Wade-Davis Plan
  34. Part of Wartime Reconstruction. States that former states of the confederacy would be able to enter the Union again with full rights after 10% of it's population took an oath of allegiance to the US Government. Proposed by Lincoln.
    10% Plan
  35. Lincoln orders the main Union army in the Eastern Theater lead by General  _______  to advance south from the capital, and to go to Manassas.
    Irvin McDowell
  36. Fought in Virginia, near the city of Manassas.
    Beauregards army receives McDowells attack. Confederate Victory. Created legend of southern fighting invincibility. 
    Battle of Manassas/ First Bull Run
  37. Union leader. Called the Young Napoleon. He increses training and improves supply of equipment and food to the army. Uses the army in the largest military operation: Peninsula Campaign. 
    George McClellan
  38. Plan by McClellan to lead the army down the river from the capital, board ships, and go down the Chesapeake Bay to Fort Monroe. Try to take Richmond. Failure. 
    Peninsula Campaign
  39. Distracts the Union from McClellan's attack against Richmond
    Valley Campaign
  40. Lee attacks McClellan's dispersed forces one-by-one and relieves Richmond of McClellan's attack. Lee's First Victory in the East.
    Seven Day's Battle
  41. Lee Combines with Jackson and they march North and attack Pope at Bull Run. 
    Seconds Battle of Bull Run
  42. Takes place in Tennessee, named after the Methodist church "Place of Peace". Goal of the union was to gain control over Southern Tennessee. Commander Johnston is shot in the knee and dies.
    Battle of Shiloh/Battle of Pittsburg Landing
  43. Stationed at Illinois. "Unconditional Surrender"
    Makes Fort Henry Surrender as well as Fort Donelson.
    Grant
  44. Commander at Fort Donelson. Refuses to Surrender to Grant.
    Nathaniel Bedford Forrest
  45. Union Troops were defending the line for half a mile where there was thicket. Confederate troops launched repeated attacks against this line.
    "Hornets Nest"
  46. Largest concentration of canon artillery.
    "Ruggles Battery"
  47. US Senator from Massachusetts. Radical Abolitionist.
    Brooks-Sumner Affair
    Charles Sumner
  48. Sent by Lee to end the crisis with John Brown at Harper's Ferry fire station. 
    JEB Stuart
  49. First choice for the Election of 1860
    William Seward
  50. General at the Battle of Wilson's Creek. 2nd Major battle of the civil war. 
    Nathaniel B. Lyon
  51. Where troops died at the Battle of Shiloh. Dramatically changes the view of the war. 
    Bloody Pond
  52. Leads the army of Northern Virginia. Known for being bold and cunning. Fighting for the Confederacy a Defensive war. Studied Jomini. 
    Robert E. Lee
  53. Lee vs. McClellan in Maryland. Lee divides his army into 5 groups. McClellan learns of Lee's plans. Antietam Creek. Bloodiest single day in Civil War.
    Antietam Campaign
  54. Ordered by McClellan to smash Lee's left flank.
    Joseph Hooker
  55. Massive Union attack. Street fighting. Burnside vs. Lee. 
    Battle of Fredericksburg
  56. Hooker Vs. Lee. Jackson gets injured and dies.
    Chancellorsville
  57. Lee's 2nd Attempt to invade the union. Tries to take the war out of Virginia. Takes war to the Union. 
    Gettysburg Campaign
  58. New Union Commander. Gettysburg Campaign.
    General Meade
  59. Lee sends assault right down Meade's middle.
    Pickett's Charge
  60. To close the gap on the Mississippi river and cut the confederacy in half. Confederacy victory. 
    Vicksburg Campaign
  61. Lee vs. Grant. Campaign straight over land to the enemy. Battle of Wilderness. Spotsylvania. Cold Harbor. Petersburg. Battle of the Crater.
    Overland Campaign
  62. Very destructive battle. Close enough to use bayonet. 
    Spotsylvania
  63. Grant plans to dig a tunnel underneath the confederate line. 
    Battle of the Crater
  64. Pemberton Vs. Grant. Pemberton surrenders. Opens Mississippi river to Union. 
    Champion Hill
  65. Rosecran vs. Bragg. 
    Chickamauga
  66. Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. Grant marches head on and drives Bragg's army out.  Key Railroad spot. Finishes off the Confederacy. 
    Chatanooga
  67. Trying to wear out the enemy.
    Strategy of Attrition
  68. Reasom: big area for cotton farming. Idea was to advance union forces to Vicksburg, New Orleans, and Arkansas, concentrate them at Shreveport, then advance west into East Texas.
    Red River Campaign
  69. Face's Joseph and Hood. Ruins City of Atlanta. 
    Sherman's "March to the Sea"
  70. Last duel between Lee and Grant. Lee surrenders. End of Civil War.
    Appomattox Campaign
  71. Lincoln and Andrew Johnston. Lincoln Wins this election. 
    Election in 1864

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