Chapter 4 and ten socio
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The learning of gender roles through social factors such as schooling, the media, and family.
begins as soon as a person is born.
Developed Chodorow's analysis, concentrating on the images adult women and men have of themsevesand their attainments..
Women were more tentative in their moral judgements rather than the men, seeing possible contradictions betweeel following a strict moral code and avoiding harming others. Gilligan suggests that this outlook reflects the traditional situation of women, anchored in caring relationships, rather than the outward-looking attitudes of men.
Argues that learning to feel male or female derives from the infant's attachment to the parents from an early age.
Women holding occupations of lower status and pay, such as secretarial and retail positions, and men holding jobs of higher status and pay, such as managerial and professional positions.
Argument that individuals make investments in their own "human capital" in order to increase their productivity and earnings by Gary Becker.
Human capital theory.
The concentration of men and women in different occupations.
Occupational segregation by sex
A promotion barrier that prevents a woman's upward mobility within an organization.
A sociological perspective that emphasizes the centrality of gender in analyizing the social world and particularly the uniqueness of the experience of women. There are many strands of feminist theory, but they all share the desire to explain gender inequalities in society and to work to overcome them.
Policies that attempt to remedy the genderpay gap by adjusting pay so that those in female-dominated jobs are not paid less for equivalent work.
The learning of gender roles through socialization and interaction with others.
social construction of gender
The biological and anatomical differences distinguishing females from males.
The dominance of men over women. All all known societies are patriarchal, although there are variations in degree and nature of the power men exercise, as compared with women. One of the prime objectives of women's movements in modern societies is to combat existing patriarchal institutions.
The inequality between men and women in terms of wealth, income, and status.
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