Electrical Systems week two

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Electrical Systems week two
2013-12-12 23:49:59
electrical systems

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  1. Types of  renewable generation systems
    • Solar
    • Hydro
    • wind
  2. Types of non renewable generation systems
    • Nuclear
    • fossil 
    • combustion
  3. what the basic function of a transmission line
    • to take large amounts of bulk power from a source and
    • transmit it over a distance to a given point where it can be used.
  4. what's the main objective for all transmission lines
    to deliver power with a minimum of line loss
  5. what considerations are structures chosen
    • voltage
    • of line, the right of way size, geographical terrain, weather, size of
    • conductor, and construction considerations. weather two circuits are required immediately or in the future
  6. wood poles are used for what lines
    sub transmission
  7. what voltages are wood poles used for
    between 44KV and 345KV
  8. what maintenance requirements do wood poles have
    testing and treating pole butts
  9. tubular steel poles are what
    popular, more aesthetically pleasing and have a longer life span
  10. tubular steel poles are used up to what voltages
  11. Lattice steel towers points
    Many pieces of angle steelbolted together in a lattice arrangement of some sort,345KV and above,Work well for double circuit configurations ,Extensive footings
  12. what factor determine what type of lattice steel tower is used
    Weight, span length,conductor size, strength needed
  13. what types of materials are insulators made of
    glass, porcelain, polymer
  14. what insulator material has only been used on the last 20 years
  15. what is the purpose of shield wires on transmission lines
    provide a path for grounding surges
  16. what part of the transmission line would you find fiber optic
    shield wires
  17. name 4 types of insulators
    • porcelain suspension 
    • porcelain line post 
    • polymer suspension
    • polymer line post
  18. what must insulators do?
    insulate the line and have the strength to support the conductors
  19. the conductor must have the________to carry the power and be strong enough to support itself under high _____
    capacity, tension
  20. what factors do voltage levels of transmission lines depend on
    • length of line
    • the amount of power to be delivered
    • the farther in distance to where it is needed
  21. 5 considerations that determine the right of way
    • voltage of the line
    • type of structure
    • conductor spacing
    • wide enough to account for some horizontal movements of the phase conductors
    • levels of electromagnetic fields
  22. how long might it take to secure right of way
    3-5 years
  23. what is the power of eminent domain in regards to rights of way
    allows utilities to condemn and secure property over the owner's objection
  24. what does bundled mean
    more than one conductor per phase
  25. ACSR
    aluminium conductor steel reinforced
  26. most underground transmission lines in very large cities are or what type construction
    • pipe type oil filled
    • where three insulated cables are in one pipe
  27. what are the largest size and weight of conductor used in transmission lines
    1 3/4", 2 1/2 pounds per foot
  28. when determining right of way _________fields are one of the major considerations
  29. what are advantages of fossil fired steam generation
    • relatively cheap fuel
    • high production capacity
    • site location (limited by water availability)
  30. some disadvantages of fossil fired steam generation
    • emits pollutants (carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, particle matter)
    • non renewable resource (uses a fuel of limited supply)
    • large site needed
    • cost for fuel delivery can be high
  31. Nuclear fired steam generation disadvantages
    • the need to be located near a water supply
    • the disposal of waste materials
    • increased background radiation
    • poor public opinion non renewable resource
  32. Nuclear fired steam generation advantages
    • high production capacity
    • no air-born pollutants
  33. advantages of geothermal generation
    • it is a renewable resource
    • geothermal areas are located throughout the united states
  34. dis advantages of geothermal generation
    none known
  35. advantages of solar generation
    • it is a renewable resource
    • produces no pollutants
  36. dis advantages of solar generation
    • produces small amounts of electricity 
    • costs exceed practical limits
  37. advantages of hydroelectric generation
    • low operation cost
    • high production capacity
    • it is a renewable resource
    • does not require any fuel
  38. advantages of combustion engine generation
    • can be located in any area
    • can provide peak or emergency power
    • low capital cost 
    • automatic operation
  39. dis advantages of combustion engine generation
    • high fuel cost and pollution
    • limited capacity
    • it uses a non renewable resource
  40. advantages of combustion turbine generation
    • low capital cost
    • automatic operation
    • can be located in any area
    • can provide peak or emergency power
  41. advantages of wind generation
    • it is a renewable resource
    • no fuel cost
  42. disadvantages of wind generation
    • construction costs
    • wind velocity limits reliability
    • birds of prey killed by flying into propellers
    • limited capacity
  43. advantages of co generation
    • efficient use of resources
    • high production capacity
  44. dis advantages of co generation
    • emits pollutants 
    • limited site locations
    • uses limited resource as fuel
  45. advantages of bio mass generation
    • renewable resource (wood products)
    • many possible site locations
  46. dis advantages bio mass generation
    • fuel may be seasonal or dependent upon other industry demands 
    • emits pollutants
    • small capacity
  47. advantages of resource recovery
    • landfill relief
    • public acceptance
  48. dis advantages of resource recovery generation
    • requires large volumes of solid waste
    • emits pollutants
  49. advantages of dispersed micro generation
    • easy installation and site location
    • compact "package" unit
  50. dis advantages of dispersed micro generation
    • expensive for commercial and industrial customers
    • large supply of natural gas is required
  51. what increases the physical size of insulators
    voltage levels
  52. In most cases what are transmission lines reinforced with
    steel strands
  53. why are bundled conductors used
    to increase the capacity of the transmission line and to reduce radio noise and corona loss.
  54. what is the size and weight transmission conductors go up to
    1 3/4" in diameter and weigh 2 1/2 lbs. per foot
  55. what factors does the voltage level of the transmission line depend on
    length of the line, the amount of power to be delivered, the voltage of the existing system, and cost of losses
  56. what is the main function of the shield wires
    provide a path to ground for lightning surges
  57. define right of way
    legal rights to construct and maintain the line
  58. width of the right way depends on
    • voltage of the line 
    • type of structure
    • conductor spacing
  59. how long can it take to secure rights of way to build a major transmission line
    3-5 years
  60. what is eminent domain
    allow utilities to condemn and secure property over the owners objection when construction a transmission line that serves the good of the general public
  61. what are three key components of a transmission system
    • structures 
    • conductors
    • insulators
  62. seven consideration when choosing transmission structures
    voltage of line, the right of way size, geographical terrain, weather, size of conductor, construction considerations, weather two circuits are required immediately or in the future
  63. what materials are insulators made of
    • glass
    • porcelain
    • polymer (which has been used only in the last 20 years)
  64. what is a sub conductor
    each conductor in a bundled conductor
  65. how many phases are in a trans circuit