refers to cultural practices and outlooks of a given community that have emerged historically and set people apart.
can be understood as a classification system that assigns individuals and groups to categories that are ranked or hierarchical.
The process by which understandings of race are used to classify individuals or groups of people; racial distinctions are more than ways of describing human differences;they are also important facotrs in the reproduction of patterns of power and inequality.
the skills taught to children of multiracial families to help them cope with racial hierarchies and to integrate multiple ethnic identities.
ethnic identity that is chosen for the moment based on the social setting or situation
ethnic identity that is retained only for symbolic importance
the attribution of characteristics of superiority or inferiority to a population sharing certain physically inherited characteristics. Racism is one specific form of prejudice, focusing on physical variations between people. Racist attitudes became entrenched during the period of western colonial expansion, but seem also to rest on mechanisms of prjudice and discrimination found in human societies today.
the patterns of discrimination based on ethnicity that have become structured into existing social insitiutions
refers to opinions or attitudes held by members of one group toward another.
the holding of preconceived ideas about an individual or group, ideas that are resitant to change even in the face of new information. prejudice may be either positive or negative.
refers to actual behavior toward another group
behavior that denies to the members of a particular group resources or rewards that can be obtained by others. Discrimination must be distinguished from prejudice: individuals who are prejudiced against others may not engage in discriminatory practices against them; conversely, people may act in a discriminatory fashion toward a group even toguh they are not prejudiced against that group.
forms of thought and/or practice that seek to confront, eradicate and//or ameliorate racism
is thinking in terms of ficed and inflexible categories
prejudice operates mainly through stereotyping.
individuals or groups blamed from wrongs that were not of their doing.
a group of people in a minority in a given society who, because of their distinct phuysical or cultural characteristics, find themselves in stiuations of inequality within that society.
The systematic, planned destruction of a racial, political, or cultural group.
the creation of thnically homogeneous territories through the mass expulsion of other ethnic populations.
the practices of keeping racial and ethnic groups physically separate, thereby maintaining the usperior position of the dominant group.
the dispersal of an ethnic population from an original homeland into foreign areas, often in a forced manner or under traumatic circumstances.
african, jewish, and amarican, british, indian, chinese, carribean
is the acceptance of a minority group by a majority population, in which the new group takes on values and norms of the dominant culture.
a model for ethnic relations in which all ethnic groups in the United States retain their independent and separate identities, yet share equally in the rights and powers of citizenship.