Midterm 1

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Midterm 1
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Midterm 1
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  1. 1)     
    A researcher has
    identified the receptive field for a neuron and has determined that the
    receptive field has a center-surround organization. If the researcher were to
    shine light into the entire receptive field, including both the center and the
    surrounding area, we would expect the neuron to:
    a. continue firing at its resting rate.
  2. 1)     
    Optic
    disk is :
    • c. the region of the eye
    • without receptors
  3. 1)     
    The figure below
    is an _________ receptive field:

    circle w/ negative surround, positive center
    on- center, off surround
  4. 1)     
    The percept is
    closer to                    than to _________.
    a. 3D object, 2D retinal image
  5. 1)     
    What is the
    claim of Nativism?
    b. There is no reason why perception should always be accurate (veridical).
  6. 1)     




















    What enables us to see a man
    on a horse in the image?
    b. Familiarity effect
  7. 1)     
    When the method
    of adjustment is used in a discrimination experiment, the mean value of the
    distribution of the adjustment is:
    c. Point of subjective equality
  8. 1)     
    Which of the
    following is the brain imaging technique to localize regions of neural activity
    based on the fact that oxygenated blood has different magnetic properties from
    deoxygenated blood?
    c. fMRI (function magnetic resonance imaging)
  9. 1)     
    How does the
    sensitivity change as the time in darkness goes?
    • d. Photopic vision is replaced by scotopic vision at
    • some point due to higher sensitivity.
  10. 1)     
    In Mach Bands,
    given the lateral inhibition of 10%, what is the perceived lightness of the
    blank in the figure below?
    88
  11. 1)     
    You have two
    psychometric functions from two subjects (A and B): A’s curve is steeper than
    B’s. What can you tell from this?
    a. A is more sensitive than B in the detection.
  12. 1)     
    How do you
    estimate the absolute threshold from the psychometric function?
    • a. It is the stimulus intensity in which the
    • proportion of response “Detected” is 0.5.
  13. 1)     
    In Hermann Grid,
    why do you see some illusory squares only at intersections between horizontal
    and vertical stripes, not elsewhere?
    b. Because there is more inhibition at the intersections.
  14. 1)     
    The region of
    space in which the presence of a stimulus will alter the firing of that neuron
    is called:
    Receptive field
  15. what is the correct order of the 3 levels of retinal cells
    b. Receptor cells – Bipolar cells – Ganglion cells
  16. 1)     
    Which of the
    following is not true of visual angle?

    a. 1 degree
    is equal to 60 minutes

    b. 1 cm at 57 cm
    distance is about 1 degree.

    c. Retinal sizes
    can be expressed by visual angle.

    d. Minimum angle of resolution is equal to the
    diameter of a receptor.
    • d. Minimum angle of resolution is equal to the
    • diameter of a receptor.
  17. 1)     
    Which of the
    following is not true of rods?

    a. The
    number of rods is greater than the number of cones.

    b. Rod vision preserves detail better than cone
    vision.

    c. There are no
    rods in the fovea.

    d. Rods are distributed
    relatively more in the periphery than cones.
    • b. Rod vision preserves detail better than cone
    • vision.
  18. 1)     
    All of the
    following are true of cones, except that:

    a. There
    are 6 million cones in each eye.

    b. Cones operate
    under bright illumination.

    c. There are no
    cones in the optic disk.

    d. Most cones are distributed within the fovea.
    d. Most cones are distributed within the fovea.
  19. 1)     
    All of the
    following are true about the focal length, except:

    a. It is a
    reciprocal of the optical power.

    b. It is the
    distance between the lens and the point of focus.

    c. It can be computed
    if you know the distances from the lens to the object and to the image.

    d. It is measured in Diopters.
    d. It is measured in Diopters.
  20. 1)     
    Which of the
    following is not true when light goes from air to water?

    a. The
    speed of light in water is lower than in air.

    b. The angle of
    incidence is greater than angle of refraction

    c. Light minimizes the total length of travel.

    d. Light
    minimizes the total time of travel.
    c. Light minimizes the total length of travel.
  21. 1)     
    Which of the
    following is true of the primary sources of light?

    a. Luminescent
    light has continuous energy spectrum

    b. When solid is raised to high temperature and generates
    photons, it is incandescent source.

    c. When liquid
    is raised to high temperature and generates photons, it is a luminescent
    source.

    d. none of the above.
    • b. When solid is raised to high temperature and generates photons, it is
    • incandescent source.
  22. 1)     
    Which of the
    following is the primary source of light?

    a. Surface
    of an object.

    b. Mirror

    c. Sun

    d. Moon
    sun
  23. 1)     
    When the eyeball
    length is just right, we call it _______:
    emmetropia
  24. 1)     
    All of the
    following are true about myopia, except:

    a. You can
    see the near object well but not the far object.

    b. The eyeball length
    is too long.

    c. The image is focused behind the retina.

    d. You need
    a concave lens to correct this.
    c. The image is focused behind the retina.
  25. 1)     
    When you open
    your eyes in the water without wearing swimming goggles, the quality of the
    retinal images will be reduced because your  _________  is not working as it should.
    cornea
  26. 1)     
    Based on the
    following diagram from signal detection experiment, how would you interpret the
    subject’s response criterion?
    a. liberal
  27. 1)     
    The signal
    detection theory assumes the following except:

    a. The
    subject keeps the response criterion stable throughout the experiment.

    b. The
    probability density functions are normally distributed.

    c. The
    variability of noise plus signal is the same as that of noise alone.

    d. If there is no stimulus, there is no
    percept.
    d. If there is no stimulus, there is no percept.
  28. 1)     
    Which of the
    following is not true of d’ in the signal detection experiment?

    a. It
    indicates the sensitivity of the subject.

    b. It is the sum of the means of the two
    distributions normalized to the standard deviation.

    c. It is
    the difference between means of the two distributions normalized to the
    standard deviation.

    d. It is
    the difference between the z-scores of Hits and False alarm.
    • b. It is the sum of the means of the two distributions
    • normalized to the standard deviation.
  29. 1)     
    Based on the
    following signal detection data, how would you interpret the subject’s
    performance?




     


    R1


    R2




    S1


    5/50


    45/50




    S2


    1/50


    49/50
    subject had a strong response bias
  30. 1)     
    Based on the
    following signal detection data, how would you interpret the subject’s
    performance?




     


    R1


    R2




    S1


    48/50


    2/50




    S2


    1/50


    49/50
    taske was easy
  31. 1)     
    An airport
    security guard is watching a display screen to check luggage for weapons.  The guard is told to open any suitcase that
    might possibly contain a weapon.  As a
    result, many suitcases that do not contain weapons are opened.  These situations are classified as:
    . False alarms.
  32.  

    1)     
     In a signal detection experiment, when a
    participant reports that the target was not present but actually the target was
    there, this is a
    . Miss.
  33. 1)     
    The “high
    threshold theory” says that:
    . There is no percept in the absence of a stimulus.
  34. 1)     
    What do you call
    the figure below?

















    1)     
    What do you call
    the figure that has four circles with corners cut off to make squares
    Kanizsa figure
  35. 1)     
    What does
    astigmatism refer to?
    • b. An error in refraction caused by differences in
    • optical power along various meridians of the cornea
  36. 1)      If
    there are two possible
    interpretations depending on simplicity and familiarity, what does human visual
    system usually take?
    • a.
    • Simplicity
  37. In
    Hess (1956)’s experiment with new born chicks, what enabled chicks to peck
    grains
    Maturation of motor system
  38. 1)        
    When visual and
    haptic information conflict like in Rock and Harris’s
    experiment, what does the human mind rely on?
    • a.      
    • Visual
    • information
  39. 1)     
    “Nativism” is a claim
    that perceptual ability is innate and was advocated by:
    a. Gestalt School
  40. 1)     
    What is not
    true of symmetry?

    a. Symmetry
    is an abstract concept.

    b. Symmetry can be deduced from properties of
    individual dots of a pattern.

    c. Symmetry
    is ubiquitous in our natural environment.

    d. Symmetry
    is a mathematical concept.
    • b. Symmetry can be deduced from properties of
    • individual dots of a pattern.
  41. 1)     
    Which of the
    following is not the characteristic of perceiving 3D shape from a 2D
    image?

    a. It is the
    inference.

    b. It is the
    inverse problem.

    c. It is the template matching problem.

    d. It is
    the ill-posed problem.
    c. It is the template matching problem.
  42. 1)     
    Which of the
    following is not true about Neutral monism?

    a. It is a
    view of the mind-body problem.

    b. There is
    one type of “stuff” which is neutral.

    c. It claims that only physical events are
    certain.

    d. It is
    also called double-aspect view.
    c. It claims that only physical events are certain.
  43.  

    1)      Which of the following is not true about psychometric
    function?

    a. It relates a physical characteristic of a stimulus to perception.

    b. It can be generated from the method of constant stimuli.

    c. It can be used to study illusions.

    d. It looks like a bell curve.
    • d.
    • It looks like a bell curve.
  44. 1)     
    Which of the
    following provides most reliable estimates of the thresholds?

    a. Method
    of adjustment

    b. Method
    of limits

    c. Method of constant stimuli

    d. Method
    of various stimuli
    Method of constant stimuli
  45. Which of the
    following is not true of the signal detection experiment?


    a. There is
    a speed-accuracy tradeoff.

    b. It is
    the best method for measuring perceptual sensitivity.

    c. It
    measures percepts not confounded with the response bias.

    d. The perfect performance is desirable.
    The perfect performance is desirable.
  46. Method of constant stimuli
    • the
    • psychophysical procedure in which a small set of stimuli is presented in random
    • order?
  47. Method of adjustment
    • the
    • subject is asked to increase or decrease the length of the test line so that it
    • is perceptually equal to the length of the reference line.
  48. Weber’s law
    • states
    • that difference threshold is proportional to the magnitude (intensity) of the
    • stimulus?
  49. Brain processing
    is classified as a(n):
    physiological event
  50. What is a proximal stimulus?
    • Distribution of the stimulus energy on the surface of
    • receptors

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