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What is assimilation?
The use of your current schemas to figure out or solve the problem in the current situation.
What is accommodation?
The act of significantly altering the schemas you already have and/or developing brand new ones.
What is the model for successful adaptation?
- assimilation → feedback → accommodation
- (schemas) (new schemas)
[kids do it naturally!]
What are the stages in Piaget's model?
- 1. Sensorimotor
- 2. Pre-Operational
- 3. Concrete Operations
- 4. Formal Operations
What is the age range in the sensorimotor stage?
0 → 18 months or 2 years
What happens during the sensorimotor stage?
- They are tactile.
- They put everything in their mouth, because that's how they learn.
- They throw and push things. "let's see what happens when you push that"
- ***If I can't taste/touch/throw/manipulate it, then it doesn't exist!
- Lack object permanence, representational thought, and a sense of self
What is object permanence?
The knowledge that an object exists even when it's not in sight.
What is representational thought?
The ability to picture or represent something in one's mind.
What is the age range in the pre-operational stage?
18 or 24 months → 6 or 7 years
What happens during the pre-operational stage?
- Capable of representational thought (language is responsible for this)
- ex: "I want a cookie"
- Capable of object permanence
- ex: calling mom from the kitchen
- Beginning to have a sense of self
- ex: "I'm a boy" "I'm a girl" "I'm tall" "I'm fast"
Limitations: appearance-reality problem (due to centration), egocentrism, and lack of reversibility
When does the appearance-reality problem occur, and what are some examples?
It occurs in the pre-operational stage.
- Appearance-reality problem: what it seems like is really what it is.
- ex: cat/dog (dog puppet with cat mask)
- ex: gender consistency problem (girl doll vs boy doll)
- ex: lack of conservation of properties (tall skinny glass vs short wide glass)
What is centration?
The inability to focus on more than one thing at a time.
What is egocentrism?
- The incapability of taking someone else's perspective.
- "What's being experienced by EVERYONE is being experienced by YOU"
- ex: 3 mountains task
What is lack of reversibility?
The inability of keeping track of sequences and going backwards to explain the steps.
What is the age range in the concrete operations stage?
6 or 7 years → 11 or 12 years
What happens during the concrete operations stage?
Have reversibility (reason why you can teach them science, math, and history)
Have conservation (usually first with numbers)
They can think about two things at the same time.
- Abstract represented
- ex: thoughts
What is the age range in the formal operations stage?
11 or 12 → rest of life
What happens during the formal operations stage?
- 2 types of formal operations:
- Emergent formal operation
- Consolidated formal operation
What happens in emergent formal operations?
- -low social intelligence
- -better at problem solving in classroom settings
- -better at applying principles you can't see
ex: Sheldon from Big Bang Theory
What happens in consolidated formal operations?
- high emotional intelligence
- can anticipate people's reactions
- tends to have an imaginary audience
What is an imaginary audience?
- a type of egocentrism
- "everyone's staring at me because of ________"
- (even when the blank is something barely noticeable, and nobody is actually staring)
- "the teenage experience"
What was the evaluation of Piaget's Theory?
- He underestimated younger children.
- He overestimated some people in formal operations. (some people make stupid decisions sometimes)
What are the different childhood attachment patterns?
What is the strange situation?
- Ainsworte's experiment with kids at 18-24 months to see if different pattern styles developed at that age.
- Step 1: examine how child explores the new environment. (how comfortable are they? & are they using their primary care giver at all?)
- Step 2: stranger enters the room. (how does the child react to the stranger they've never seen before?)
- Step 3: primary care giver leaves the room (how distressed is the child?)
- Step 4: primary care give comes back. (how does the child respond to being reunited?)
How would a secure child behave during the strange situation?
- Step 1: automatically begins navigating environment as long as they don't get signals from the care giver that something strange is going on.
- "Checking behavior" - making sure that the primary care giver isn't giving the child bad signals
- Step 2: look at stranger then at primary care giver to make sure it's okay. So long as the stranger isn't too close, they use the care giver as a safe base (as long as primary care giver doesn't give a signal of danger)
- Step 3: Show distress. Cry. Ask primary care giver to stay. Try to follow primary care giver. They don't like this situation. They try to keep a distance from the stranger.
- Step 4: Run immediately to primary care giver for security. Want to be reunited/picked up/etc. They get soothed by primary care giver quite quickly. Once stranger leaves, they try to play again.
How would an avoidant child behave during the strange situation?
- Step 1: Child feels comfortable. Navigates new environment. Same as secure, BUT NO CHECKING BEHAVIOR. They don't use the primary care giver as a base. Almost ignores the care giver.
- Step 2: Doesn't get closer to primary care giver. Tries to act like "I'm OKAY..." They slow down and try to figure out the situation on their own. "I'm good..." Doesn't use primary care giver as safe base. Tries to hide distress.
- Step 3: Doesn't seem to be distressed by primary care giver leaving. Not crying or begging to stay. Trying to act like "I'm good... I'm fine... We're cool..." Trying REALLY HARD not to show distress.
- ***Outside = I'm fine! I'm good!
- ***Inside = aroused! sympathetic system kicks in!!! (freaking out on the inside)
- Step 4: no establishment of reunited. doesn't try to get close to care taker. distances self from care taker. "I'm mad. I was distressed and YOU LEFT ME. and now you just show up OUT OF NOWHERE."
How would an anxious/ambivalent child behave during the strange situation?
- Step 1: Child shows no interest in new environment. "It's scary. I don't like it. Get me out of here." It's threatening. Will not allow self to be put down. Decreases distance. "When can we leave?" Distressed.
- Step 2: Even clingy to primary care giver. Doesn't want to talk to/see stranger. Tries to bury head. Very distressed.
- Step 3: Child has to be pried off. Physically and verbally expresses distress. PANIC MODE. screaming/crying/sobbing/banging on door/pleading/etc. Tries to distance self from stranger as far as possible. Prevents ANY attempts of contact with stranger.
- Step 4: INSTANT physical contact. Sobbing/crying/communicates desperation to be picked up, but then they'll pull the care giver's hair, etc.
- "Thank GOD you're back! BUT HOW DARE YOU LEAVE ME!!! YOU KNOW HOW SCARED I GET!!!"
- push-pull: 2 opposing behaviors
- NOT easily soothed. Have to calm them down before they leave.
How do parents of secure children act?
- They are in sync and are consistent in responsiveness.
- Allows child to understand that s/he can take control of things.
- Other people are responsive and available if help is needed.
- "I have the ability to get the help I need."
- Other people are trustworthy.
How do parents of avoidant children act?
- -Lacking in consistency in responsiveness.
- (happens because care giver is unavailable or child gets "punished" for asking for something.)
- -Child learns very early on how to deal with things on own.
- -"Whatever situation comes my way, it's me and me alone."
- -"I need to do this on my own because I can't count on anyone else."
How do parents of anxious/ambivalent children act?
- Out of sync and consistent in responsiveness.
- Sometimes I need something, but I don't get it; sometimes I don't need something, but I get it anyway.
- Sometimes yelling/screaming works, sometimes it doesn't.
- It doesn't create the outcomes that I need.
- New situations create trepidation and arousal.
- 50/50 chance of response.
- Everything feels unpredictable.
- Every factor is something I can't predict.
- Reason for overexaggeration.
- "MAYBE if I tip the scales in my favor, I'll get what I need."
What other factors are involved in whether parents are in sync or not with their children?
- Each primary care giver can have different attachment styles.
- Children have different temperaments: love to be held; like running free; high activity level (doesn't like to be held for too long); lower sociability (doesn't like to run around)
- Age gaps in siblings: if child is born while parent is going through rough times; if age gaps are huge, when times have changed; timing is KEY.
What is the major crisis in the first year of life?
Trust vs mistrust
What is the major crisis in early adulthood?
Intimacy vs isolation
What is the major crisis in old age?
Integrity vs despair
What are the major distinct parenting styles identified by Baumrind?
How do authoritarian parents behave?
They are firm, punitive, and unsympathetic.
How do permissive parents behave?
They give their children complete freedom and lax discipline.
How do authoritative parents behave?
They reason with their children and are firm but understanding.
How do uninvolved parents behave?
They invest as little time, money, and effort in their children as possible.
What does the traditional research show about parenting styles?
Parenting styles are consistently related to young children's social and emotional development.
How do children of authoritarian parents tend to behave?
- Show aggression and other behavioral problems
- Less likely to experience guilt or accept blame after doing something wrong
How do children of permissive parents tend to behave?
- Likely to have tantrums/ask for help when they encounter even slight difficulties
How do children of authoritative parents tend to behave?
- Socially responsible
- Better school achievements
- Greater popularity
- Better psychological adjustment to parental divorce
What are the cross cultural implications?
- There is no universally "best" style of parenting. The authoritative parenting style, which works the best for Euopean American families, is not related to better school performance in African American or Asian American youngsters.
- The reason for this is that each of these patterns can have different meanings in different cultures.
What are the three major levels of moral development?
What is the reasoning of someone in the preconventional level?
- Stage 1: Obeying and avoiding punishment from a superior authority
- Stage 2: Making a fair exchange, a good deal
What is the reasoning of someone in the conventional level?
- Stage 3: Pleasing others and getting their approval
- Stage 4: Doing your duty, following rules and social order
What is the reasoning of someone in the postconventional level?
- Stage 5: Respecting rules and laws but recognizing that they may have limits
- Stage 6: Following universal ethical principles such as justice, reciprocity, equality, and respect for human life and rights
How generalizable is the model of moral development to other cultures?
- The moral judgments made in some cultures do not always fit neatly into Kohlberg's stages.
- ex: people in collectivist cultures explained their answers to moral dilemmas by pointing to the importance of the community.
What is the practical approach to defining psychopathy?
The practical approach sees abnormality as including those patterns of thought, behavior, and emotion that lead to suffering and significantly impair people's ability to function as expected within their culture.
What is the biopsychosocial model of mental disorders?
- Biological Factors: There's a long history.
- Hippocrates said that psychological disorders resulted from imbalances among four humors (bodily fluids) - blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile.
- Ancient Chinese cultures say it's from an imbalance of yin and yang (the dual forces of the universe flowing in the physical body)
- Psychological processes:
- Sociocultural Factors: characteristics or conditions that can influence the appearance and form of maladaptive behavior such as gender, age, and marital status; physical, social, and economic situations; and cultural values, traditions, expectations, and opportunities.
What pieces of the puzzle are provided by the neurobiological model, the psychological model, and the sociocultural model?
- Neurobiological model: explains psychological disorders in terms of particular disturbances in the anatomy and chemistry of the brain and in other biological processes
- Psychological model: explains that the biological factors are constantly influencing being influenced by a variety of psychological processes, such as our wants, needs, and emotions; our learning experiences; and our way of looking at the world.
- Sociocultural model:
Describe the diathesis-stress model
- Biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors can predispose is toward disorder, but it takes a certain amount of stress to actually trigger it.
- For people with a strong diathesis, a relatively mild stress might be enough to create a problem.
- People whose predisposition is weaker might not show signs of disorder until stress becomes extreme or prolonged.
- ***The more risk factors (diathesis) for a disorder a person has, the more likely it is that the person will display a form of psychological disorder associated with the risk factors.
What is the DSM-IV?
- It describes the patterns of thinking, emotion, and behavior that define various mental disorders.
- For each disorder, the DSM-IV provides specific criteria outlining the conditions that must be present before a person is given that diagnostic label.
What are the criticisms about the DSM-IV?
- The reliability of the DSM-IV is acceptable or high for some disorders but not for others.
- It's still far from perfect because:
- -people's problems usually don't fit neatly into a single category.
- -the same symptom can appear as part of more than just one disorder.
- -although the DSM-IV provides many useful diagnostic criteria, some of them are open to a certain amount of interpretation.
- -when mental health professionals must decide for themselves whether a particular person's symptoms are severe enough to warrant a particular diagnosis, personal bias can creep into the system.
What defines anxiety disorders?
- Specific fears (phobias)
- Panic attacks
- Generalized feelings of dread, rituals of thought and action (obsessive-compulsive disorder) aimed at controlling anxiety, and problems caused by traumatic events, such as rape or military combat.
What defines somatoform disorders?
Physical symptoms such as paralysis and blindness that have no physical cause. Unusual preoccupation with physical health or with nonexistent physical problems (hypochondriasis, somatization disorder, somatoform pain disorder)
What defines dissociative disorders?
Psychologically caused problems of consciousness and self-identification - e.g. loss of memory (amnesia) or the development or more than one identity (multiple personality)
What defines mood disorders?
Severe disturbances of mood, especially depression, overexcitement (mania), or alternating episodes of each extreme (as in bipolar disorder)
What defines schizophrenia?
Severe conditions characterized by abnormalities in thinking, perception, emotion, movement, and motivation that greatly interfere with daily functioning. Problems involving false beliefs (delusions)
What defines personality disorders?
Diagnostic labels given to individuals who may or may not receive an Axis I diagnosis but who show lifelong behavior patterns that are unsatisfactory to them or that disturb other people. These patterns may involve unusual suspiciousness, unusual ways of thinking, self-centeredness, shyness, overdependency, excessive concern with neatness and detail, or overemotionally, among others.
What symptoms characterize phobias?
Strong, irrational fear of an object or situation that does not objectively justify such a reaction
What symptoms characterize generalized anxiety disorder?
Long-lasting anxiety that is not focused on any particular object or situation
What symptoms characterize panic disorders?
Anxiety in the form of severe panic attacks that come without warning or obvious cause
What is obsessive-compulsive disorder?
An anxiety disorder in which a person becomes obsessed with certain thoughts or feels a compulsion to do certain things
What's the difference between obsession and compulsion?
- Obsessions: persistent, upsetting, and unwanted thoughts that interfere with daily life and may lead to compulsions
- Compulsions: repetitive behaviors that interfere with daily functioning but are performed in an effort to prevent dangers or events associated with obsessions
What are the three types of dissociative disorders?
- Fugue reaction (dissociative fugue)
- Dissociative amnesia
- Dissociative identity disorder (DID)
What is fugue reaction?
- A psychological disorder involving sudden loss of memory and the assumption of a new identity in a new locale.
- Also known as dissociative fugue.
What is dissociative amnesia?
A psychological disorder marked by a sudden loss of memory for one's own name, occupation, or other identifying information
What is dissociative identity disorder (DID)?
A dissociative disorder in which a person appears to have more than one identity, each of which behaves in a different way.
Compare and contrast dysthymic disorder and clinical depression.
- Dysthymic disorder: A pattern of depression in which the person shows the sad mood, lack of interest, and loss of pleasure (associated with major depression but to a lesser degree and for a longer period)
- Clinical depression: Deep sadness, feelings of worthlessness, changes in eating and sleeping habits, loss of interest and pleasure.
What does research show about genetic influence of depression and bipolar disorder and the neurotransmitters implicated in depression?
- Bipolar disorder is much more likely to be seen in both members of genetically identical twins than in genetically nonidentical twins.
- Family studies also show that those closely related to people with bipolar disorder are more likely than others to develop the disorder themselves.
- Major depression is more likely to occur in both members of identical twins than in both members of nonidentical twins.
- Findings such as these suggest that genetic influences tend to be stronger for affective disorders than for most other disorders.
- Researchers have identified certain genetic variations that affect vulnerability to affective disorders, but it's still important to recognize that genetic variations alone probably do not cause affective disorders.
- Other biological factors that may contrivute to affective disorders include structural abnormalities or malfunctions in regions of the brain involved in imbalances in the brain's neurotransmitter systems, but the precise nature of the relationship between neurotransmitters and affective disorders is still not fully understood.
What does Beck's theory of depression suggest?
- Depressed people develop mental habits of:
- blaming themselves when things go wrong
- focusing on and exaggerating the negative side of events
- jumping to overly generalized, pessimistic conclusions
What is the negative attributional style?
When people blame their lack of control or other problems in a permanent, generalized lack of personal competence rather than on a temporary mistake or some external cause
What is the ruminative style?
When people continuously think about negative events, about why they occur, and even about being depressed are likely to feel more and more depressed
What is the distracting style?
When people engage in activity that distracts them from their concerns and helps bring them out of their depressed mood
What are the positive symptoms associated with schizophrenia?
- Hallucinations (false perceptions): visual & auditory (most common)
- Delusions (false beliefs):
- -grandeur → believe they're extremely powerful/famous
- -persecution → everyone's out there to get them
- -reference → common everyday occurrences are about them
- a. thought broadcasting → everyone else can hear your thoughts
- b. thought blocking → as you're thinking, someone else is stealing your thoughts
- c. thought insertion → your thoughts are someone else's thoughts
What are the negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia?
- SUBTRACTIONS FROM NORMAL LIFE
- Lack of pleasure
- Social withdrawal
- Lack of pleasure
- Social withdrawal
- Lack of appetite
- (harder to treat than other two types of symptoms)
What are the disorganized symptoms associated with schizophrenia?
- Incoherent/disruptive speech & thinking
- Neologisms: nonsensical made up words that only has meaning to the speaker
- Word salad: completely jumbled thoughts
- Loose association: tendency of one thought to be unconnected to the next
- Clanging: the stringing together of words based on patterns of sounds (ex: rhyming)
- Poverty of speech: slow/muted speech
- Chaotic behavior: hair twirling/constant fidgiting/agitation
- Inappropriate affect: exaggerated/inappropriate expression
What are the subtypes of schizophrenia?
What are the major characteristics associated with paranoid schizophrenia?
- Frequency: 40% of people with schizophrenia; appears late in life (after age 25-30)
- Delusions of grandeur or persecutions
- Extreme jealousy
- Onset often sudden
- Signs of impairment may be subtle
What are the major characteristics associated with undifferentiated schizophrenia?
- Frequency: 40% of all people with schizophrenia
- Patterns of disordered behavior, thought, and emotion that do not fall easily into any other subtype
What are the major characteristics associated with catatonic schizophrenia?
- Frequency: 8% of all people with schizophrenia
- Disordered movement, alternating between total immobility (stupor) and wild excitement.
- In stupor, the person doesn't speak or attend to communication
What are the major characteristics associated with disorganized schizophrenia?
- Frequency: 5% of all people with schizophrenia; high prevalence in homeless population
- Incoherent speech
- Facial grimaces
- Inappropriate laughter/giggling
- Neglected personal hygiene
- Loss of bladder/bowel control
What are the major characteristics associated with residual schizophrenia?
- Frequency varies
- Applies to people who have had prior episodes of schizophrenia but are not currently displaying symptoms
What does the Vulnerability Theory of Schizophrenia suggest?
- Vulnerability to schizophrenia is mainly biological
- Different people have differing degrees of vulnerability
- Vulnerability is influenced partially by genetic influences on development and partly by abnormalities that arise from environmental risk factors
- Psychological components, such as exposure to poor parenting, a high-stress environment, or inadequate coping skills, may help determine whether schizophrenia actually appears and may also influence the course of the disorder
What is antisocial personality disorder?
A long-term, persistent pattern of impulsive, selfish, unscrupulous, even criminal behavior
What did Widom's research show about links between child abuse and antisocial personality disorder?
It supported earlier studies in finding and association between childhood abuse and criminality, violence, and antisocial personality disorder.
What other factors were associated with antisocial personality disorder?
- Broken homes
- Rejection by parents
- Poor discipline
- Lack of good parental models
- Lack of attachment to early caregivers
- Conflict-filled childhoods
What is upward social comparison?
When people compare themselves with those who are much better than they are
What is downward social comparison?
When people compare themselves with those who aren't as good
What is the perception of relative deprivation?
The belief that whatever you are getting, it is less than what you deserve
What is a self-fulfulling prophesy?
A process in which an initial impression causes us to bring out behavior in another that confirms the impression
What are the different attributional biases?
- Fundamental attribution error:
- Ultimate attribution error:
- Actor-observer bias:
- Self-serving bias:
- Unrealistic optimism:
What are the basic premises of the elaboration likelihood model?
Persuasive message → (central route) High elaboration → Careful processing of information → Degree of attitude change depends on quality of arguments
Persuasive message → (peripheral route) Low elaboration → Careful processing does not occur → Attitude change depends on presence of persuasion cues
How does personal involvement and cognitive loading/busyness affect which route is taken?
The more personally involving a topic is, the more likely it is that the central route will be activated.
What are the basic premises of cognitive dissonance theory?
People want their thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes to be in harmony with one another and with their behavior.
How do people react when they experience cognitive dissonance?
They become anxious and are motivated to make them more consistent.
What factors lead to attraction and liking?
- People are most likely to form committed relationships with others who are similar to themselves in physical attractiveness.
- The physical appearance of a partner tends to be more important to men than to women, whereas the partner's intelligence tends to be more important to women than to men.
What is deindividuation and why does it occur?
- Deindividuation is a psychological state occurring in group members that results in loss of individuality and a tendency to do things not normally done when alone
- Social influence exerted by social norms creates orderly social behavior, but it can also lead to a breakdown in order, like deindividuation.
What does deindividualition often result in?
It can lead people to follow the group's social norms, even if those norms promote antisocial behavior.
What is conformity?
Changing one's behavior or beliefs to match those of others, generally as a result of real or imagined (though unspoken) group pressure
What is compliance?
Adjusting one's behavior because of a direct request
What is obedience?
Changing behavior in response to a demand from an authority figure
Which factors affect obedience?
- Experimenter status and prestige
- The behavior of other people
- The behavior of the learner
- Personality characteristics
How does the experimenter's status and prestige affect obedience?
The level of obedience is slightly higher when the experimenter's status and prestige are really high, but people are still willing to obey orders to do great harm even when the authority making the demand is not especially reputable or prestigious.
How does the behavior of other people affect obedience?
The presence of others who disobey appears to be the most powerful factor in reducing obedience
How does the behavior of the learner affect obedience?
Perceiving a victim's pain doesn't reduce obedience to authority but being reminded of a victim's right to be released from the experiment does.
How do personality characteristics affect obedience?
- People who display authoritarianism are more likely than others to obey an experimenter's instructions to shock the learner.
- People who were less likely to obey orders to harm the learner were also the ones who were concerned about others and predisposed to have empathy (to understand or experience another person's emotional state)
Which factors predict whether or not we are likely to help someone?
- Costs associated with assisting
- Costs (of both parties) associated with not assisting
- Clarity of the need for help
- Presence of others
- Personality of the helper
- Amount of empathy the helper has for the injured
- Biological relationship between helper and injured
What is the bystander effect?
A phenomenon in which the chances that someone will help in an emergency decrease as the number of people present increases
How is diffusion of responsibility related to the bystander effect?
- Each witness assumes that someone else will take responsibility for helping the victim.
- Each witness feels less obligated to help and thus lowers the perceived cost of not helping.
What's the basic premises behind the arousal of the cost-reward theory?
People assist others in order to reduce the unpleasant arousal caused by another person's distress. They attempt to minimize the costs of doing this.
What's the basic premises behind the arousal of the empathy-altruism theory?
People sometimes assist others for unselfish reasons if they feel empathy for a person in need. They are motivated by a desire to increase another person's well-being.
What's the basic premises behind the arousal of the evolutionary theory?
People assist relatives because it increases the chances that the helper's genes will survive in future generations