Psychology!! _).txt

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Lutz2014
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Psychology!! _).txt
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2013-12-12 18:53:54
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  1. What is phrenology?
    Predicted personality based on bumps and fissures in skull
  2. Sir Francis Bacon
    Founder of empiricism (knowledge comes from evidence)
  3. Rene Descartes
    Dualism (mind & body are separate, but interact.
  4. Wilhelm Wundt
    Created the first psychology lab in Germany
  5. William James
    Functionalism (understand ways the mind helps people function)
  6. Gestalt Psychology
    The whole is more than the sum of parts
  7. Sigmund Freud
    Psychodynamic/ psychoanalytic, most unconscious urges are sexual and/or aggressive
  8. Behaviorism
    Focused on observable behaviors

    John Watson
  9. Operational definition
    Definition of a variable that specifies how it's measures or manipulated in a particular experiment
  10. Theory
    Set of principles that explain a set if observations
  11. Case study
    Reaseach technique where one person is studied in depth
  12. Surveys
    Set of questions, typically about beliefs, attitudes,preferences, or behaviors
  13. Population
    Group of people
  14. Sample
    Subset of population
  15. Random sample
    Same representative of population, every member of population has an equal chance of inclusion
  16. Naturalistic observation
    Watching and recording the behavior of organisms in their natural environment
  17. Correlation
    A measure of how closely relates two variables are
  18. Correlation coefficient
    • Statistic that measure correlation, ranging from -1 to 1
    • Positive means when one increases, so does the other and vice versa
    • Negative means when one goes down the other goes up and vice versa
  19. Independent variable
    The aspect of the experiment that is intentionally manipulated
  20. Dependent variable
    The aspect of the situation being measured, "the effect"
  21. Control condition
    Serves as comparison
  22. Confound
    Variable that makes your groups different
  23. Random assignment
    Assigning participants by chance
  24. Reliable
    Consistent, trustworthy
  25. Valid
    Measures what it is supposed to
  26. Standard deviation
    Average of how far numbers deviated from average
  27. Meta-analysis
    Combines results from different studies on the same topic
  28. Humanistic psychology
    Emphasized potential growth of healthy people
  29. Cognitive psychology
    Computer provides new analogy for psychologists
  30. John Locke
    "Tabula rasa" - blank slate
  31. Dendrites
    Branches that receive messages
  32. Axon
    Delivers messages to other neurons
  33. Myelin sheath
    Layer of fatty tissue that insulates axon and speeds up neurotransmission
  34. Nucleus
    Regulates cell functioning
  35. Schwan cells
    Segments of myelin sheath
  36. Nodes of Ranvier
    Gaps in between Schwan cells
  37. Terminal buttons
    Release chemicals into space between neurons to be picked up
  38. Threshold
    Minimum amount of excitatory messages to fire
  39. Refractory period
    Time when a neuron can't fire u,til in builds up negative charge
  40. Reuptake
    Reabsorbtion into vesicles
  41. Acetylcholine (ACH)
    Regulate muscle movement
  42. Dopamine
    • Controls brains reward and pleasure center
    • Excess- Schizophrenia
    • Deficiency- Parkinson's
  43. Norepinephrine
    • Controls" fight or flight"
    • Deficiency- depression
  44. Serotonin
    • Helps regulate mood
    • Deficiency- depression
  45. Agonists
    Mimic neurotransmitters
  46. Antagonists
    Block neurotransmitters
  47. Pituitary gland
    Most influential gland in endocrine system
  48. EEG
    • Records electrical activity
    • Does not demonstrate precise locations
  49. MEG
    • Records magnetic field generated by neurons
    • Difficult to measure brain structures deep within brain
  50. CAT Scan
    • Produces 3d image of brain
    • High levels of radiation
  51. PET Scan
    • Uses radioactive glucose to track energy consumption
    • Radiation, takes time to develop, expensive
  52. MRI
    Uses magnets to take pictures of structure
  53. FMRI
    • Type if MRI that detects blood flow throughout brain (function)
    • Brain constantly in action, on my shows increase, uncomfortable
  54. Hind brain
    • Older brain regions composed of brainstem and cerebellum
    • Like sustaining, automatic
  55. Midbrain
    • Bridge between hind brain and fore brain
    • Thalamus
  56. Forebrain
    Newer brain composed of limbic system & cerebral cortex
  57. Brainstem
    Neural structure at base consisting of medulla, pons, & reticular formation
  58. Medulla
    • Lowest structure where spinal cord meets brain
    • Regulates heartbeat, breathing, & swallowing
  59. Pons
    • Connects brainstem to cerebellum
    • Regulates sleep, coordinating motor movements, posture,facial expressions
  60. Reticular formation,
    Regulates alertness and automatic nervous system
  61. Thalamus
    • Brains sensory switchboard,
    • Recieves signals from senses and relays them to appropriate structures
  62. Cerebellum
    "Little brain", responsible for helping to maintain balance and posture.
  63. Limbic system
    Amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus
  64. Amygdala
    Critical to emotions fear and anger
  65. Hypothalamus
    Regulates body, i.e body temp, hunger & thirst, sleep, fatigue, controls pituitary gland
  66. Hippocampus
    Stores new experiences in memory
  67. Patient HM
    Removed hippocampi due to epilepsy, can longer form new memories.
  68. Cerebral cortex
    • Separated into two hemispheres
    • Left hemisphere- written & spoken language, number skills, reasoning
    • Right hemisphere- insight, art, imagination/ creativity, music
  69. Corpus callosum
    Connects left & right hemispheres
  70. Sulcus
    Crease in brain
  71. Gyrus
    Bulge in brain
  72. Frontal lobe
    Creates" YOU" , personality, decisions, reasoning, emotion
  73. Parietal Lobe
    Integrates sensory information to memory
  74. Temporal Lobe
    Hearing, understandjng language
  75. Occipital Lobe
    Vision
  76. Plasticity
    Brains ability to modify itself.
  77. Bottom-up processing
    Begins with senses & works up to perception
  78. Top- down processing
    Processing guided by knowledge, expectations beliefs
  79. Absolute threshold
    Smallest amount of sensory stimulus needed to notice that the stimulus is there
  80. Just noticeable difference
    Amount of change needed to notice a change has occurred
  81. Weber 's Law
    Size of JND depends on the overall magnitude of original stimulus
  82. Priming
    Tendency for recently used words or ideas to come to mind easily & influence interpretation of new information
  83. Cornea
    transparent covering of eye that protects it
  84. Pupil
    Small adjustable opening that allows light to enter the eye
  85. Lens
    transparent structure behind pupil that changes shape to focus image
  86. Retina
    Light sensitive inner surface
  87. Rods
    Detect Black & White
  88. Cones
    Detect color & fine detail
  89. Parallel Processing
    Processing several aspects simultaneously
  90. Serial Processing
    Processing step-by-step in specific order
  91. Trichromatic theory
    • combinations of neural impulses of 3 kinds of cones respond to different wavelengths
    • Primary colors= red, blue, green.
  92. Opponent Process Theory
    3 types of cones, but each responsible for a pair of colors, i.e. red-green, blue-yellow, black-white
  93. Most common Color Blindness?
    Red-Green
  94. Retinal Disparity
    Difference between the images striking the retinas.
  95. Stroboscopic Movement
    Perception of movement in series of still images flashed quickly in a sequence
  96. Phi Phenomenon
    Illusion in movement created when lights blink on and off in quick succession
  97. Critical Period
    Optimal period shortly after birth when exposure to certain stimuli/experiences leads to proper development
  98. Change blindness
    Failure to detect changes in visual changes
  99. Pheromones
    Chemical substances produced by the body that serves as a means of interpersonal communication
  100. Gate Control Theory
    Long nerve fibers can interfere with short nerve fiber functioning
  101. Suprachiasmatic nucleus
    Light sensitive portion of the hypothalamus that regulates biological clock/ circadian rhythm
  102. Pineal gland
    Secretes the hormone melatonin
  103. Melatonin
    "Hormone of darkness", causes people to feel sleepy.
  104. Manifest content
    Obvious & memorable content of the dream
  105. Latent content
    Symbolic meaning and content of dream
  106. Narcolepsy
    Caused by deficiency in hypocretin
  107. Depressants
    Reduce nervous system activity, i.e. alcohol, barbiturates, opiates (morphine, heroin, codeine)
  108. Stimulants
    Stimulate central nervous system, i.e. cocaine, MDMA (Ecstasy)
  109. Hallucinogens
    Distort perceptions, i.e. marijuana
  110. Classical conditioning
    Paired events are two stimuli

    Ivan Pavlov
  111. Operant Conditioning
    Paired events are a behavior and their consequence

    B.F Skinner
  112. Unconditioned Stimulus
    Stimulus that automatically elicits response
  113. Unconditioned Response
    Reflexive response to the Unconditioned Stimulus
  114. Conditioned Stimulus
    Originally neutral stimulus that acquires significance through repeated pairings
  115. Conditioned Response
    Learned response to previously neutral stimulus
  116. Stimulus generalization
    Tendency for the Conditioned Response to be elicited by similar stimulus
  117. Stimulus discrimination
    Ability to distinguish making similar stimuli & to respond yo only the actual conditioned stimuli
  118. Systematic Desensitization
    Behavioral technique that teaches people to be released in the presence of feared object
  119. Law of Effect
    • Proposed by Thorndike
    • Rewarded behaviors are more likely to be repeated
  120. Shaping
    Gradual process of reinforcing for a behavior that gets closer & closer to the desired behavior
  121. Positive Reinforcement
    • A DESIRED reinforces is given after a behavior, INCREASING the likelihood of the behavior being repeated
    • Ex. Attention, approval, food, etc.
  122. Negative Reinforcement
    • An unpleasant event or circumstance is removed following the desired effect
    • Ex. Seat belt warning
  123. Fixed interval
    • Reinforcement given for the behavior after a certain interval of time
    • Ex. Every 5 minutes
  124. Variable interval
    • Reinforcement given after changing interval of time
    • Ex. 30 seconds, 2 minutes, 1 hour, 5 minutes
  125. Fixed ratio
    • Reinforcement given after a set number of responses
    • Ex. Every 5th time the button is pushed
  126. Variable ratio
    • Reinforcement given after a variable number of responses
    • Ex. Slot machines, hardest one to extinct
  127. Positive Punishment
    • When behavior leads to an unpleasant consequence
    • Ex. Disapproval, trouble, etc
  128. Negative Punishment
    • Removal of a pleasant event or circumstance following behavior
    • Ex. No attention, no food, etc
  129. Latent learning
    Learning not immediately acted on, but stored for later
  130. Insight learning
    When an organism suddenly grasps the meaning of something & incorporates nrw knowledge into old
  131. Wolfgang Kohler
    Studied insight learning in chimps, found them demonstrating the" aha" moment often
  132. Social learning theory
    • Learning occurs as a product of watching others
    • Albert Bandura & and the Bobo doll study
  133. Contingency
    • More consistent pairing, more learning
    • Robert Pescorla
  134. Mirror neurons
    Neurons that fire when observing someone else engaging in actions
  135. Iconic memory
    Visual

    Donald Sperling
  136. Echoic memory
    Auditory
  137. Rehersal
    Repeating information over and over again to retain it
  138. Chunking
    Grouping information in clusters
  139. primacy effect
    Increased memory for the beginning
  140. Recency effect
    Increased memory for the end
  141. Explicit Memory
    • Memory of events that can be retrieved at will
    • Hippocampus
  142. Episodic memory
    Memory of events & their contents
  143. Semantic Memory
    Memories of meanings of words, concepts, & general facts about the world.
  144. Retrograde amnesia
    Disrupts old memories
  145. Anterograde amnesia
    Leaves already consolidate memories intact, but prevents new learning
  146. Implicit Memory
    • Memory that cannot be voluntarily recalled, but still influences behavior or thinking, i.e. habits
    • Cerebellum
  147. Proactive Interference
    When old information disrupts the recalling of new information
  148. Retroactive Interference
    New information disrupts the recalling of old information
  149. Linguistic Relatively Hypothesis
    • Benjamin Whorf
    • Perceptions & thoughts determined by language
  150. Representation Problem
    Challenge of hot best to formulate the nature of the problem
  151. Functional Fixedness
    Difficulty to abandon one view of solving problems to adopt another.
  152. Availability Heuristics
    If it's easy to recall, it must happen a lot
  153. Representativeness Heuristic
    If something has characteristics, it must belong to this category.
  154. Confirmation Bias
    Tendency to search for information that confirms our ideas, beliefs, etc.
  155. Phonemes
    Smallest distinctive sound unit
  156. Morphemes
    Smallest language unit that carries meaning
  157. Broca's Aphasia
    Problems producing language
  158. Wernicke's Aphasia
    Problems comprehending language
  159. Yerkes- Dobson Theory
    • Optimum arousal theory
    • Desire to avoid stimulus too arousing or too boring
  160. Abraham Maslow
    Hierarchy of needs
  161. Lateral hypothalamus
    Initiates hunger
  162. Ventromedial hypothalamus
    Suppresses hunger
  163. Leptin
    Hormone which allows brain to judge hunger
  164. Obesity
    BMI > 30
  165. Androgens
    Male hormones
  166. Estrogens
    Female hormones
  167. Paul Ekman
    Basic emotions
  168. Catharsis
    Emotional release intended to relieve aggressive urges
  169. Impact bias
    Tendency to overestimate long- term I,pact of emotional events, underestimate ability to adapt
  170. James Lange theory
    Awareness of physiological state in response to emotion-inducing stimulus
  171. Cannon Bard Theory
    Simultaneous experience of emotion & physiologic arousal
  172. Two factory theory
    Experience physiological arousal, CONSCIOUS interpretation
  173. General adaptation Syndrome
    • 1. Alarm
    • Shock phase
    • Ntishock phase
    • 2. Resistance
    • 3. Exhaustion
  174. Patient Phineas Gage
    Pipe blew through his frontal lobe, he survived but changed into a different person entirely
  175. Franz Mesmer
    Early form of hypnosis, propped animal magnetism. Had people drink water with iron and used magnets on them
  176. Robert Rescorla
    Contingency
  177. Benjamin Whorf
    linguistic relatively hypothesis

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