Sociology pt 2 Deviance Crime and Inequality Exam 3

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Sociology pt 2 Deviance Crime and Inequality Exam 3
2013-12-12 21:34:37
sociology exam

sociology exam 3
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  1. Racial disparities in sentencing
    • black to white - 5.6:1
    • 412 out of 100,000 whites
    • 2,290 out of 100,000
  2. more likely to have criminal record than bachelors degree or military service
    • Explanation for Racial Inequality in Sentencing
    • Strain Theory
    • Racial Threat Theory
  3. Explanations for Racial inequality in Sentencing
    • Strain Theory
    • Racial Threat Theory
    • Life Course Analysis 
    • The War on Drugs
  4. Strain Theory
    fewer educational, therefor legitimate economic opportunities lead to more crime (low income)
  5. Racial Threat Theory
    • Blacks are incarcerated at a higher rate when there is a larger white population
    • minorities are threat so police them more
  6. Life Course Analyse
    • Things like education, jobs, marriage, have normalizing effect on life course
    • But if incarcerated, can't go to school etc
  7. War on Drugs
    • Mandatory Sentencing 
    • 3 strikes/habitual offenders 
    • 2/3rd of nonviolent drug incarcerated offenders are minorities
  8. Gender Gap in Offending Explinations
    • Narrowing Gender Gap
    • - Emancipation Hypothesis - women closing gap with everything else, why not crime too?
    • - Economic Marginalization Hypothesis - women have high economic burdens (strain theory)
    • - Decay of Chivalry Hypothesis - because we achieved more equality, police feel less chivalrous to let women go
  9. Goffman, Total Institution
    • institution in which members conduct all aspects of their lives
    • ie military, jail

    goal is social control of large monolithic group of people
  10. Foucault and the Panopticon
    society is moving towards total gov control and ubiquitous surveillance

    what started in prisons was meant to spread throughout society social message of constantly being watched
  11. US Incarceration Trends compared to other countries
    • highest rate of incarceration and highest prison population in world
    • $64 bil annually
  12. Deterrence Theory
    • crime results from a rational calculation of costs vs benefits
    • -focused on punishment (but higher punishment does not equal lower crime)
  13. Focused deterrence vs undifferentiated targeting
    • -undifferentiated targeting- *is ineffective
    • focus on all criminals/crime
    • unequal arrests based on race/income
    • does not reduce crime
    • increased prison population

    focused deterrence - selective targeting focus resources on most dangerous criminals or specific type of crime
  14. Boston case study and pulling levers approach
    come to problem with more than one approach
  15. Recidivism
    going back to jail or repeating crime
  16. Restorative Justice
    emphasizes rehabilitation and healing because crime hurts everyone (community and victim and offender). Accountability, communication, and forgiveness through meditation
  17. Stop and Frisk
    • stopping individuals who look sketch or have criminals (to get guns off the street)
    • mostly minorities
  18. Death Penalty
    • higher than other countries
    • cost 90k per year per prisoner than life in prison
    • more black than white, higher chance of sentence if victim was white
  19. Exonerations in US
    143 so far in the US
  20. Wrongful Convictions
    false confession and eye witness identification 2 most common reasons
  21. Functionalist/Conservative Solutions
    identify social pressures that result in high rates of deviance and crime. 

    • Better policing, learn current problems and prevent them from occurring
    • Strengthen communities and other organizations
    • 3 strikes
  22. Conflict/Liberal Solutions
    • reduce power differentials and/or economic inequality to solve crime
    • also try and reduce racism
    • empower people 

    people who have few opportunities to gain good education or job more likely to commit crime
  23. Symbolic Interaction Solution
    behavior is learned, including criminal behavior

    • so teach people law abiding ways
    • listen to diverse voices to find out how we can reduce crime