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What is ecology
the study of the interactions between organisms and their environment
What different levels is ecology described at?
What are the four climatic factors that impinge on life?
- (physical environment contributes enormously to diversity)
What gives rise to our climate?
What does water evaporating at the equator produce?
- Prodigious rainfall in the tropics and dry air that sucks moisture from the land at higher latitudes
- (Because of how earth faces sun and rotates, sets up latitudes and creates different environments and also allows more rainfall, sets up a circulation)
- (lots of water at equator, very dry where loops stops)
What does the warming of equatorial water do?
- sets up wind patterns in the northern and southern hemispheres
- creates ocean currents (currents are a second factor)
- (sets up currents within the ocean (by circulation), water at the equator is warm and east coast water is usually warmer than west coast)
What is sunlight controlled by?
Our yearly passage around the sun (also currents are caused by suns rotation and tilt of axis)
When are we furthest from the sun?
Where are the number of hours of sunlight and darkness are the same?
September equinox (and march)
What do mountains influence?
moisture reaching lad distal to the ocean (have affect on weather flows, mountains contribute to weather)
How is the earth divided?
- into biomes (tropic of cancer above equator and tropic of capricorn below equator)
- Deserts are predictable to where they are.
- Everything in a area is dictated by the biome it is in- adaptations, animals, and plants
How are terrestrial biomes specified? (trees and plants)
- by the temperature and precipitin (rainfall)
- Minnesota used to be covered by coniferous forests (pine trees) but now we are between broad leaf forest prairie, and coniferous forest
- Shows different biomes common by their rainfall and temperature
- specified by salinity, proximity to the land and water depth
- biomes before and after drop offs are different
Are biomes static or dynamic?
- Dynamic (always changes in the environment/disturbances)
- Disturbances include fires and other things that may change environment
What kind of factors influence ecology?
Abiotic and biotic factors
What are the abiotic factors that influence ecology?
- climate, soil or water, elevation
- (physical factors-temp, sunlight, soil structure, fire, moisture. Chemical factors- water, oxygen, salinity, pH, soil nutrients.)
What are factors that limit population distribution?
What the animals prefer (example- kangaroos do not habitat toward the ocean, but instead stay toward the arid regions of Australia) (look at climate/water their for abiotic environment)
Are abiotic or biotic factors that limit distribution more important to understand?
abiotic (climate change) (physical environment)
trying to make an evolutionary map by parsimony
Ecologists ask what prevents expansion rather than what's important about what?
The endogenous environment
What factors are tied into abiotic and biotic factors of population distribution?
dispersal and behavior
What are biotic factors that influence ecology?
Birth rates and death rates, dispersal, behavior, predation (also parasitism, competition, and disease)
What is the intrinsic biotic factor to the organism?
food preference in a geographic area (limits where they go, and food may be localized by environment)
What are the extrinsic biotic factors to the organism?
- predation, parasitism, or competition in a geographic area (greater impingement than intrinsic on where organisms may go)
- Competition has a huge effect on why some animals don't go out of their environments (probably)
- Physical barriers (abiotic? but also biotic?)
- oceans and mountains may prevent migration
- ex- the cattle egret, comes from africa, have dispersed throughout parts of south america. They like temp in coastal area may not appreciate tropics
- Physical barrier was atlantic ocean, but is gone and now can travel and adapt to other environments