Medical terms Chapter 14,15,16 for UNLV DPT program

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Medical terms Chapter 14,15,16 for UNLV DPT program
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Medical terms Chapter 14,15,16 for UNLV DPT program
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  1. Periosteum
    Otter most layer of the bone
  2. lumb/o
    loin, lumbar region of the spine
  3. rachi/o
    spine, vertebral column
  4. ankyl/o
    crooked, stiff, bent
  5. my/o, myos/o
    muscle
  6. petr/o also similar to lith/o
    stone
  7. scoli/o
    crooked, curved
  8. sym-, syn-
    together, joined
  9. -asthenia
    weakness
  10. -clasia, -clasis, -clast
    surgical fixation, fusion
  11. -physis
    growth
  12. -schisis
    split, fissure
  13. ankylosis
    abnormal condition of stiffness(often referring to fixation of a joint, such as the result of chronic rheumatoid arthritis)
  14. arthritis
    inflammation of joint
  15. cranioschisis
    fissure of the skull
  16. kyphosis
    abnormal condition of a hump
  17. lordosis
    abnormal condition of bending forward "sway back"
  18. myasthenia
    weakness of muscle
  19. myeloma
    tumor of bone marrow
  20. osteomyelitits
    inflammation of the bone and bone marrow
  21. osteopenia
    abnormal reduction of bone mass
  22. osteopetrosis
    abnormal condition of stonelike bones (marblelike bones cause by increased formation of bone)
  23. rachischisis
    fissure of the verterbral column (congenital) Spina bifida
  24. rhabdomyolysis
    dissolution of striated muscle
  25. spondylosis
    abnormal condition of vertebra
  26. tenosynovitis
    inflammation of the tendon and the synovial membrane
  27. ankylosing spondylitis
    form of arthritis that first affects the spine and adjacent strucutres and that, as it progressess, causes a forward bend of the spine (also called Strumpell-Marie arthritis or disease or rheumatoid spondylitis
  28. Colles fracture
    a type of wrist fracture. The fracture is at a lower end of the radius, the distal fragment being displaced backward.
  29. exostosis
    abnormal beningn growth on the surface of a bone also called a spur
  30. Gout
    disease in which an excessive amount of uric acid in the blood causes sodium urate crystals (tophi) to be depoisited in the joints, especially that of the great toe, producing arthritis.
  31. Lyme Disease
    an infection caused by a bacteria (Borrelia burgdorferi) carried by dear ticks and transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick. Rash, Fever, Headache, Pain, Fatigue
  32. Myasthenia gravis (MG)
    chronic disease characterized by muscle weakness and thought to be caused by a defect in the transmission of impulses from nerve to muscle cell. The face, larynx, and throat are frequently affected; no true paralysis of the muscle exists.
  33. arthrocentesis
    surgical puncture of a joint to aspirate fluid centesis-aspirate
  34. arthroclasia
    surgical breaking of a stiff joint
  35. arthrodesis
    surgical fixation of a joint
  36. osteoclasis
    surgical breaking of bone (to correct deformity)
  37. rachiotomy
    incision into the vertebral column
  38. spondylosyndesis
    fusing together of the vertebrae (spinal fusion)
  39. tenomyoplasty
    surgical repair of the tendon and muscle
  40. electromyogram (EMG)
    Record of the intrinsic electrical activity in a skeletal muscle.
  41. arthralgia
    joint pain
  42. atrophy
    without developing (wasting)
  43. bradykinesia
    slow movement
  44. dyskenesia
    difficult movement
  45. dystrophy
    abnormal development
  46. chiropodist, podiatrist
    specialist in treating and diagnosing diseases and disorders of the foot, including medical and surgical treatment.
  47. creiptus
    the crackling sound head when two bones rub against each other, or grating caused by the rubbing together of dry surfaces of a joint. Also used with the sound heard in pneumonia.
  48. osteopathy
    system of medicine that uses the usual forms of diagnosis and treatment but places greater emphasis on the role of the relation between the body organs and the musculoskeletal system; manipulating may be used in addition to other treatments.
  49. Prostheisis
    an artificial substitue for a missing body part
  50. ventricles
    the spaces within the brain that contain a fluid called CSF
  51. Cerebellum
    assist in coordination of skeletal muscles and to maintain balance (hindbrain)
  52. brainstem
    10 of 12 cranial nerves originate here.
  53. Pons
    "bridge" connects cerebrum with the cerebellum and brainstem
  54. Medulla oblongata
    between pons and spinal cord. Centers for control of respiration, heart rate,blood pressure.
  55. Glia
    cells that support and nourish the nervous system. Astroglia, oligodendroglia, microglia
  56. encephal/o
    brain
  57. radic/o, radicul/o, rhiz/o
    nerve root (proximal end of a peripheral nerve, closest to the spinal cord)
  58. esthesi/o
    sensation, sensitivity, feeling
  59. phas/o
    speech
  60. poli/o
    gray matter
  61. -ictal
    seizure, attack
  62. -paresis
    slight paralysis (-plegia)
  63. Neurasthenia
    nerve weakness
  64. rhizomeningomyelitits
    inflammation of the nerve root, meninges, and spinal cord
  65. Alzheimer disease (AD)
    disease characterized by early senility, confusion, loss of recognition of persons or familiar surroundings, restlessness, and impaired memory
  66. Amyotrophic lateral scelrosis (ALS)
    Progressive muscle atrophy cuased by hardening of nerve tissue on the lateral columns of the spinal cord (Lou Gehrig Disease)
  67. Bell palsy
    paralysis of muscles on one side of the face, usually a temporary condition. Sagging mouth on affected side and nonclosure of the eyelid
  68. cerebral palsy
    condition characterized by lack of muscle control and partial paralysis, caused by a brain defect or lesion present at birth of shortly thereafter.
  69. Parkinson disease (PD)
    chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system. Symtoms include restrin tremorsof the hand and feet, rigidity, expressionless face, and shuffling gait. Usually after 50
  70. Transient Ischemic attack (TIA)
    sudden deficient bupply of blood to the brain lasting a short time. The symptoms may be similar to those of a stroke but with TIA the symptoms are temporary and the usualy outcome is complete recovery.
  71. cerebral angiography
    radiographic imaginig of the blood vessels in the brain. (after the injection of a contrast medium)
  72. CT myelography
    process of recording (scan) the spinal cord (after the injection of a contrast agent onto the subarachnoid space by lumbar puncture.
  73. CT scan (computed tomography of the brain)
    process that includes the use of a computer to produce a serioes of brain tissue images at ant desired depth. The procedure is noninvasive, painless, and particularly useful in diagnosing brain tumors.
  74. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging of the brain or spine)
    a noninvasive technique that produces sectional images of soft tissues of the brain pr spine through a strong magnetice feild.
  75. PET positron emission tomography of the brain
    an imaginng rechnique with a radioactive substance that produces sectional imaging of the brainto examine blood flow and metabolic activity. Images are projected on a viewing screen
  76. Evoked potential studies (EP studies)
    a group of diagnostic tests that measure changes and responses in breain waves elicited by visual auditory, or somatosensory stimuli.
  77. LP lumbar puncture
    insertion of a needle into the subarachnoid space usually between the 3 and 4 lumbar vertebrae. It is performed for many reasons. Including the removal of CSf for diagnostic purposes.
  78. aphasia
    condition without speaking, loss of ability to speak
  79. cephalalgia
    pain in the head
  80. dysphasia
    difficulty speaking
  81. interictal
    between seizure attacks. -ictal seizure
  82. ataxia
    loss of muscle control
  83. dysarthria,
    • the inability to use speech that is distinct and connected because of the loss of muscle control after damage to the peripheral or central
    • nervous system
  84. psychogenic
    originating in the mind
  85. psychosomatic
    pertaining to the body and mind
  86. Pica
    compulsive eating of nonnutritive substances ice or clay, usually an iron deficiency.
  87. AD
    Alzheimer disease
  88. ALD
    amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  89. Pituitary gland or hypophyisis cerebri
    pea sized, at base of brain, anterior (adenohypophysis) and posterior (neurohypophysis) lobes. produce hormones.
  90. Anterior lobe
    • releases:
    • GH-regulate growth of body
    • ACTH - stimulate adrenal cortex
    • TSH - stimulates the thyroid gland
    • Gonadotropic hormones- affect reproductive systems
    • FSH, LH - regulate development, growth and function of ovary nad testes.
    • PRL - glandular tissue during pregnanacy and after birth
  91. neurohypophysis
    • ADH - stimulates kidney to store reabsord water
    • Oxytocin - stimulates uterin constraction during labor
  92. hypothalmus
    near pituitary gland. secretes releasing hormone to stimulate of inhinit release of pituitary gland hormones.
  93. Thyroid glang
    • largest endocrine gland.
    • T3 and T4 release, need iodine.
    • T4 is necessary for body cell metabolism
  94. Parathyroid
    • small bodies behind the thyroid
    • PTH - maintain calcium levels
  95. islets of Langherhans
    • Insulin
    • Glucagon
  96. adrenal or suprarenal glands
    • outer adrenal cortex - cortisol 0r hydrocortisone, aids body in stress by increasing glucose levels, aldosterone-regulates electrolyte levels.
    • Inner adrendal medulla - epinephrine - help deal with stress by increasin bp, heartrate,
    • respiration
  97. acr/o
    extremities, height
  98. dips/o
    thirst
  99. kal/i
    potassium
  100. natr/o
    sodium
  101. -drome
    run, running
  102. Addison disease
    chronic syndrome resulting from a deficiency in the hormaonal secretion of the adrenal cortex (of the kidney, cortisol (glucose increases) and aldosterone (minerals)
  103. cretinism
    cause by lack of thyroid gland. puffy features, mental deficiency, large tongue, and dwarfism
  104. Cushings syndrome
    excesse cortisol by the adrenal gland.
  105. Diabetes insipidus (DI)
    from decreased ADH by post lobe, polydipsia and polyuria excreting sodium.
  106. diabetes mellitus (DM)
    chronic disorder od carb metabolism. elevated blood sugar levels. causes chronic renal disease, retinopathy and neuropathy
  107. Graves disease
    disorder of the thyroid gland. hyperthyroidism, goiter, exophthalmus
  108. ketosis
    abnormal [ketone] from excessive fat metabolism
  109. myxedema
    condition resulting from deficiency of the thyroid hormon thyroxine (T4) servere hypothyroidism in adults. puffiness of faces, hands, coarss thick skin, large tongue, slow speech, anemia
  110. pheochromocytoma
    tumor of adrenal medulla (epinephrine) characterized by headaches, hypertension, palpitations, diaphoresis, chect pain and abdominal pain. curable and fatal if not treated.
  111. tetany,
    nerves cause muscle contraction as a result of low calcium, caused para hypoparathyroidism (deficieny of the parathyroid hormone)
  112. thyotoxicosis
    condition caused by excessive thyroid hormone
  113. radioactive iodine uptake
    nuclear medicine scan to measure thyroid function
  114. thyroid scan
    neclear medicine test that shows the size, shape, and function of thyroid gland
  115. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C)
    a blood test to measure the average blood sugar concentraion over the life span of the red blood cell. indicates average blood level for the 6-8 weeks before the test, useful to monito diabetes.
  116. exophthalmus
    abnormal proturusion of the eyeball
  117. hormone
    a chemical substance secreted by an endocrine gland that is carried in the blood to a target tissue
  118. isthmus
    narrow strip of tissue connecting two large parts in the body, isthmus connects the two lobes of the thyroid gland.
  119. HbA1C
    glycosylated hemoglobin
  120. RAIU
    radioactive iodine uptake
  121. T4
    thyroxine level

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