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Drugs that affect conduction velocity
Truncas Arteriosus (T)
Aorta, Pulmonary Trunk
Bulbus cordis (B)
Smooth parts of R and L Ventricles
Primitive Ventricle (PV)
Trabeculated part of R and L ventricles
Primitive atrium (PA)
Trabeculated part of R and L atrium
Sinus venosus (SV)
Smooth part of R atrium, coronary sinus
What muscles are in the R atrium?
What muscles are in the R ventricle?
Trabeculae carnae, papillary muscles, moderator band,
What are the 4 events that occur during Week 4-5 for the heart?
- Atrial and Ventricular Septation
- Remodeling of the Outflow tracts
- Endocardial cushions AV canals
Tetralogy of Fallot
- Ventricular septal defect
- Pulmonary stenosis
- Aortic overriding
- Ventricular hypertrophy
Umbilical vein to Inferior vena cava
From R to L atrium
From pulmonary trunk to aorta
What are the remnants of ductus venosus?
What are the remnants of foramen ovale?
What are the remnants of ductus arteriosus?
Where do blood islands lie in and when do they develop?
Cardiogenic field and Week 3
Which viral infection is known to cause CHD's and which ones?
- VSD, PDA, Tetralogy of Fallot
What are the clinical features of R --> L shunt?
- Long term cyanosis
- Clubbing of the fingers
What is the most feared complication of the right ventricular hypertrophy?
- Late Cyanotic CHD
- Significant irreversible pulmonary HTN develops, structural defects of the CHD are considered irreversible
What is common to children w/ diabetic moms?
Transposition of the Great Vessels
What is Pericarditis always associated with pathologically?
For viral infections? For bacterial infections?
- Exudation of fluid into the pericardial sac
- Clear yellow in serous pericarditis for viral infections
- Purulent exudate for bacterial infections caused by pus forming staph or strep
What is serofibrinous exudate associated with?
Severe damage (like Rheumatic Fever or in early bacterial infections)
What most likely causes Myocarditis?
Virus - Coxsackie B virus
What also comes to the Myocardium after the virus takes over and what does it secrete?
- Secretes lymphokines (Interleukins and TNF)
- Coxsackie B Virus
- T-Lymphocytes - Lymphokines
- Pale and congested areas
- Tiger Effect
- Flabby and dilated heart
- Endomyocardial Biopsy (Punch Biopsy)
- No specific tx
- Supportive measures
What causes ABE? SBE?
- ABE --> Staph a.
- SBE --> Strep m., Strep viridans
Acute Bacterial Endocarditis
- Highly destructive infection of the valves
- Previously normal heart valve
- High virulent organisms
- Staph A or Gr-
What is the foremost factor predisposing to the development of Infective Endocarditis?
Seeding of the blood from microbes due to infection elsewhere