FOH

Card Set Information

Author:
xangxelax
ID:
252906
Filename:
FOH
Updated:
2013-12-12 20:23:06
Tags:
FOH
Folders:
FOH
Description:
FOH
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user xangxelax on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What are the two basic patterns of inflammation?
    Acute inflammation and Chronic inflammation
  2. What is Acute inflammation?
    Short duration, nonspecific early response to injury. Aimed primarily at removing the injurious agent and limiting tissue damage
  3. What is chronic inflammation?
    • Longer duration.
    • Recurrent or progressive acute inflammatory process or a low grade smoldering response that fails to evoke an acute response.
    • Can result in the destruction of tissue, thickening and scarring of connective tissue, death of cells/ tissues
  4. What are the 5 symptoms of acute inflammation?
    Pain, Redness, Swelling, Heat, Loss of function
  5. What are the markers of inflammation?
    ESR (Erythrocyte sedimentation rate) and CRP (C-reactive protein)
  6. What are the steps of the development of atherosclerosis?
    • 1. Endothelial cell injury
    • 2. Migration of inflammatory cells
    • 3. Lipid accumulation and smooth muscle cell proliferation
    • 4. Plaque structure
  7. What is an antigen?
    A substance foreign to the body
  8. What is a part of the cellular innate immunity?
    Macrophages, NK cells, Granulocytes
  9. What is a part of the humoral acquired immunity?
    Antibodies
  10. What is a part of the cellular adaptive immunity?
    Lymphocytes and Dendritic cells
  11. What is immunologic memory?
    Observation that once responded to an antigen you'll get a stronger response next time you see it
  12. What are the hallmarks of adaptive immune response?
    Immunologic memory and immunologic tolerance
  13. What are the functions of the immune system?
    Protect against infectious microorganisms and eliminate abnormal self
  14. Which nucleotide does not contain an oxygen atom?
    Adenine
  15. Why does A base pair with T and G base pair with C?
    Adenine contains 1 exocyclic atom and so does Thymine and Uracil. Whereas Guanine and cytosine have 2 exocyclic atoms
  16. What is the difference between nitrogenous bases, nucleosides, and nucleotides?
    • Nitrogenous bases are just the bases.
    • Nucleosides = base + sugar
    • Nucleotides = base + sugar + phosphate
  17. SCID
    • Congenital Immunodeficiency
    • Defects in maturation of T cells, B cells, NK cells
  18. What is the primary spinal curvature and which way does it concave?
    Kyphotic and concaves anteriorly
  19. What is the secondary spinal curvature and which waydoes it concave?
    Lordotic and concaves posteriorly
  20. Where is the transverse foramen located?
    Cervical Spine
  21. What is the outer layer of the disc called?
    Anulus Fibrosis
  22. What will prevent too much flexion of cranium?
    Interspinous Ligament
  23. What will prevent too much extension?
    Anterior Longitudinal Ligament
  24. What do you go through when doing the Spinal Tap?
    • Skin --> Subcutaneious tissue (superficial fascia) --> supraspinous ligaments (1st ligament you see. Spans 1 to one
    • inferior to it) --> Interspinous ligament (in between each spinous processes)  --> Ligamentum Flavum (feels like pushing through balloon, one you’re feeling for, feel pop) --> Epidural Space (anesthetic at that level) --> Dural space (collect cerebral spinal fluid) --> epidural space (anteriorly) --> Posterior longitudinal space
  25. Where is the origin of the trapezius?
    Superior Nuchal line, External Occipital Protuberance, Spinous processes C7-T12, ligamentum nuchae
  26. Where is the insertion of the trapezius?
    Lateral 1/3 of clavicle, acromion, scapular spine
  27. What is the innervation of trapezius?
    Cranial Nerve 11 (Spinal Accessory)
  28. What are the actions for the trapezius muscle?
    Elevation, depression, and rotation of the scapula
  29. Where is the origin of the Latissimus dorsi?
    Spinous processes of T7-L5, sacrum, iliac crest
  30. Where is the insertion of latissimus dorsi?
    Intertubercular sulcus of humerus
  31. What is the innervation of latissimus dorsi?
    Thoracodorsal nerve
  32. What are the actions for latissimus dorsi?
    Extend, adduct, and medially rotate humerus
  33. What is the primary spinal curvature and which way does it concave?
    Kyphotic and concaves anteriorly
  34. What is the secondary spinal curvature and which waydoes it concave?
    Lordotic and concaves posteriorly
  35. Where is the transverse foramen located?
    Cervical Spine
  36. What is the outer layer of the disc called?
    Anulus Fibrosis
  37. What will prevent too much flexion of cranium?
    Interspinous Ligament
  38. What will prevent too much extension?
    Anterior Longitudinal Ligament
  39. What do you go through when doing the Spinal Tap?
    • Skin --> Subcutaneious tissue (superficial fascia) --> supraspinous ligaments (1st ligament you see. Spans 1 to one
    • inferior to it) --> Interspinous ligament (in between each spinous processes)  --> Ligamentum Flavum (feels like pushing through balloon, one you’re feeling for, feel pop) --> Epidural Space (anesthetic at that level) --> Dural space (collect cerebral spinal fluid) --> epidural space (anteriorly) --> Posterior longitudinal space
  40. What is the interior of the intervertebral disc?
    Nucleus Pulposus
  41. What is the nucleus pulposis?
    The interior of the intervertebral disc
  42. Tectorial Membrane
    Continuation of posterior longitudinal ligament
  43. Nuchal Ligament
    Continuation of supraspinous ligament
  44. Where is the origin of Levator Scapulae?
    Transverse processes C1-C4
  45. Where is the insertion of Levator Scapulae?
    Medial Scapular Border (superior to spine)
  46. What is the action for Levator Scapulae?
    Elevates scapula
  47. Where is the origin for Rhomboid Minor?
    Spinous processes C7-T1
  48. Where is the insertion for Rhomboid Minor?
    Medial Scapular Border (at spine)
  49. What is the action for Rhomboid Minor?
    Retracts/ elevates scapula
  50. Where is the origin for Rhomboid Major?
    Spinous processes T2-T5
  51. Where is the insertion for Rhomboid Major?
    Medial Scapular Border (Inferior to Spine)
  52. What is the action for Rhomboid Major?
    Retracts/ elevates scapula
  53. What are the boundaries for Triangle of Auscultation?
    Latissimus dorsi, Trapezius, Rhomboid Major
  54. What is Cardioplegia?
    Heart is cooled, infused with chemicals, and stopped
  55. Who is C. Walton Lillehei?
    Performed the first "open" heart operation using cold cardioplegia (ICE)
  56. Who performed the first "open" heart operation using cold cardioplegia (ICE)
    C. Walton Lillehei
  57. Who is James Hardy?
    Performed the first human lung transplant and first xenograft heart transplant
  58. Who performed the first human lung transplant?
    James Hardy
  59. Who performed the first xenograft heart transplant: Chimpanzee to Human?
    James Hardy
  60. Who is Leonard Bailey?
    • Xenograft heart transplant of baboon heart to baby (Died 21 days later)
    • "Baby Fae"
    • Baby developed Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
  61. Who is "Baby Fae"
    The baby that Dr. Leonard Bailey did a xenograft surgery on with a baboons heart
  62. Who is Christiaan Barnard?
    • Performed first adult heart transplant.
    • Discovered cause of congenital intestinal atresia
    • First hetereotopic heart transplant
  63. Who performed the first adult heart transplant?
    Christiaan Barnard
  64. What is heterotopic?
    2nd heart piggy backed onto patients heart
  65. Who discovered the circulatory pathways of the human heart?
    William Harvey
  66. Who is William Harvey?
    Discovered the circulatory pathways of the human heart
  67. Who performed the first CABG (Coronary Artery Bypass Graft)?
    David Sabiston (unsuccessful) and Michael DeBakey (successful)
  68. Who helped develop the artificial heart?
    Kolesov
  69. Who created the 2 headed dog?
    Demikhov
  70. Who developed a system to keep organs alive outside the body with a "sterile respiratory system"?
    Alex Carrel
  71. Who succeeded in performing the first cardiac catheterization on himself?
    Werner Forssmann
  72. Who created the shunt for Tetralogy of Fallot?
    Alfred Blalock and Vivien Thomas
  73. What is the shunt for Tetralogy of Fallot?
    Shunt from subclavian artery to pulmonary artery
  74. Who created the Heart Lung Machine?
    John Gibbon
  75. Who discovered the cause of congenital intestinal atresia?
    Christiaan Barnard
  76. Who performed the first U.S. heart transplant?
    Adrian Kantrowitz
  77. Who performed the first successful human adult heart transplantation?
    Denton Cooley
  78. Who developed the cardiac defibrillator?
    Denton Cooley
  79. Who invented the dialysis machine and is known as the "father" of artificial organs?
    Willem Kolff
  80. Who invented the Jarvik-7 TAH (Syncardia Heart)?
    Robert Jarvik
  81. Who performed the world's first Jarvik-7 TAH implantation?
    William DeVries
  82. Who first used the Jarvik-7 TAH to bridge patient to transplant?
    Jack Copeland
  83. Who performed the first open heart surgery?
    C. Walton Lillihei
  84. Amine
  85. Carboxylic Acid
  86. Carboxylate
  87. Ester
  88. Amide
  89. Acetyl
  90. a-carbon
  91. Alanine
  92. Phenylalanine
  93. Tyrosine
  94. Asparagine
  95. Glutamine
  96. Aspartic Acid
  97. Glutamic Acid
  98. Alpha Glucose
  99. Beta Glucose
  100. Fructose
  101. Starches
  102. Sucrose
  103. Amylose
  104. Amylopectin
  105. Cellulose
  106. Triacylglycerol
  107. Hydroxyl Group
  108. Carboxylic Acid Group
  109. Ester
  110. Glycerol
  111. Fatty Acids
  112. Diacylglycerols
  113. Monoacylglycerols
  114. Phospholipids
  115. Cholesterol
  116. Cholesteryl Ester
  117. DHA
  118. EPA
  119. Oleic Acid
  120. ATP
  121. ADP
  122. AMP
  123. NAD
  124. FAD
  125. CoA
  126. Niacin
    NAD - Nicotinic Acid
  127. Riboflavin
    FAD
  128. Thiamine
    Pyridoxine - Thiamine pyrophosphate
  129. Pantothenic Acid
    Coenzyme A
  130. Arthrogram
  131. Contrast Study
  132. Intra operative Cholangiogram
  133. ERCP
  134. CT Scan
  135. MRI
  136. Bone Scan
  137. HIDA Scan
  138. How can you tell a compound will get reduced or oxidized?
    It is determined by the relative electronegativities of the two atoms that are broken apart or that have come together
  139. More H means..
    Higher in energy, and will get oxidized
  140. More O means..
    Lower in energy and will get reduced
  141. Phospho fructo kinase 1
    For F6P in getting to glycolysis
  142. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase
    G6P to get to pentose phosphate pathway
  143. Glycogen Synthase
    G1P to get to glycogen
  144. Posterior Ramus
    • Supplies:
    • Vertebral Joints
    • Deep back muscles
    • Overlying Skin
  145. Anterior Ramus
    • Supplies:
    • Ant. and lat. trunk
    • Upper limbs
    • Lower limbs
    • Overlying Skin
  146. Posterior/ Dorsal Nerve fibers contain what kind of information
    Motor Information
  147. Anterior/ Ventral Nerve fibers contain what kind of information
    Sensory Information
  148. Rami Communicans
    Sites of communication between the sympathetic trunk and the spinal nerve
  149. ANS stimulates
    • Smooth (involuntary) muscles
    • Glands
    • Cardiac Muscle
  150. What system has a 2 neuron system?
    ANS: Presynaptic and Postsynaptic
  151. For Sympathetic division, where is the cell bodies located for presynaptic
    In gray matter of spinal cord
  152. For Sympathetic division, where is the cell bodies located for postsynaptic
    In the sympathetic chain ganglia (sympathetic trunk)
  153. For Parasympathetic division, where is the cell bodies located for presynaptic
    In the brain stem or sacral spinal cord
  154. For Parasympathetic division, where is the cell bodies located for postsynaptic
    Effector Organ
  155. Neurons
    Integrate signals and generate responses
  156. Axons
    Provide paths for signal transduction
  157. Synapses
    Make connections
  158. Universal Characteristics of Synovial Joints
    • Articular Cavity
    • Hyaline Cartilage
    • Joint Capsule (Synovial membrane, fibrous membrane)
  159. What kind of tissue and is it avascular or vascular for CARTILAGE?
    Semi-rigid connective tissue (allows for flexibility and/or articulation) and avascular
  160. What kind of tissue and is it avascular or vascular for BONE?
    Dense connective tissue (rigid segments act as lever arms for movement) and innervated and vascularized
  161. Axial Skeleton
    • Bones that form the longitudinal axis of the body
    • Skull, thoracic cage, and vertebral column
  162. Appendicular Skeleton
    • Bones of the limbs
    • Shoulder girdle (clavicle and scapula)
    • Pelvis
  163. Shapes of Bones
    Long, Short, Sesamoid, Irregular, Flat
  164. What is the MOA for Ethosuximide?
    • Inhibits T-Type, low voltage gated Ca2+ channels
    • Drug of choice for Absence Seizures
  165. What is the MOA for Lorazepam?
    • Binds to specific site on GABA-A receptor and increases the frequency of channel opening
    • Drug of choice for Status Epilepticus
  166. What is the MOA for Diazepam, midazolam?
    • Binds to specific site on GABA-A receptor and increases the frequency of channel opening
    • Alternative drug of choice for Status Epilepticus
  167. What is the MOA for Flumazenil?
    • Competitive inhibitor of the GABA-A benzodiazepine receptor
    • Reverses CNS and respiratory depression caused by benzodiazepine
  168. What is the MOA for Phenytoin?
    • Inhibits voltage gated (VG) sodium channels
    • Longer acting drug used after Lorazepam in treating SE
  169. What is the MOA for Fosphenytoin?
    Same as phenytoin; Inhibits voltage gated Na+ channels
  170. What is the MOA for Phenobarbital?
    Binds to specific site on GABA-A receptor and increases the time the channel stays open
  171. What is the MOA for Valproic Acid?
    • Inhibits VG Na+ channels
    • Inhibits T-Type Ca2+ channels
    • Augments GABA synthesis
    • Inhibits GABA metabolic inactivation
  172. What is the MOA for Divalproex?
    • Same as Valproic acid; Inhibits VG Na+ channels, T-Type Ca2+ channels, augments GABA synthesis, inhibits GABA metabolic inactivation
    • Dissociates to valproic acid in GI tract
  173. What is the MOA for Levetiracetam?
    • Unclear MOA but slows release of glutamate from storage vesicles by binding to vesicle protein SV2A
    • Broad spectrum antiseizure activity including absence seizures
  174. Narcotics
    Addictive drug that reduces pain, alters mood, and behavior induces sleep

    Ex. Heroin
  175. Stimulants
    Makes user feel stronger

    Ex. Crack Cocaine
  176. Sedative Hypnotics
    Slow down body functions ("sleepy pill")

    Ex. Xanax or alcohol
  177. Hallucinogens
    Delusion

    Ex. LSD, glue solvent
  178. Class II Drugs
    Cannot be telephoned in and cannot be refilled

    Ex. opium and methadone
  179. Class I Drugs
    Require a special license for prescribing

    Ex. Heroin

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview