Com Test

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  1. Can be overused and create a negative reaction; avoid fear tactics and propaganda
  2. Relies on personal examples or narratives
  3. Evokes an emotional response in the listener – moves audience to action
  4. Persuasive appeals directed at the audience’s reasoning on a topic
  5. Information must come from valid and accurate sources
  6. Creates a pattern of logical argument to which all other types of proofs mustsubstantiate
  7. Relies on facts, statistics, figures, and diagrams
  8. Involves quoting valid sources/experts in which the audience believes in the credibilityof those sources/experts
  9. The moral character and personality of the speaker impacts appeal
  10. Supplements Logos by providing expert testimony
  11. Based on competence, likeability, integrity, or power – speaker credibility andcharacter
  12. Helps audience process and retain information

    Promotes interest and motivation
    Functions of Presentation Aids
  13. Conveys information concisely

    Improves speaker credibility
    Functions of Presentation Aids
  14. What presentation aid is:

    A type of any live or inanimate object that illustrates key points?
  15. What presentation aid is:

    A 3-D scale representation of an object?
  16. What presentation aid is:

    Displayed on a slide show or poster board?
    • Pictures, diagrams, maps, charts,
    • graphs and tables
  17. What presentation aid is:

    Add an extra dimension to your speech?
    Audio and video tools.
  18. What presentation aid:

    Combines several types of media?
  19. Entertainment
    Social agenda-setting

    Are what?
    Functions of Special Occasion Speeches
  20. Speeches of Introduction
    Speeches of Acceptance
    Speeches of Presentation
    Roasts and Toasts
    Eulogies and Tributes
    After Dinner Speeches
    Speeches of Inspiration

    Are what?
    Types of Special Occasion Speeches
  21. Should be acknowledged by the person being introduced
    Speeches of Introduction
  22. Motivate audience to listen to the speaker
    Speeches of Introduction
  23. Speeches of Introduction
    Prepare the audience for the occasion
  24. Express gratitude toward those who helped you reach the goals for which you are beinghonored, as well as those giving the award
    Speeches of Acceptance
  25. Should be prepared in advance if you know you will, or suspect you may, receive theaward
    Speeches of Acceptance
  26. Are made in response to receiving an award

    Express gratitude toward the giver

    Should be genuine and humble
    Speeches of Acceptance
  27. Talk about the recipient of the award – and why they are receiving it
    Speeches of Presentation
  28. Presenting an honor or award to someone else
    Convey the meaning of the award 
    Consider the physical presentation
    Speeches of Presentation
  29. Prepare for and be flexible if other speakers use some of your material

    Consider the recipient’s personality when planning
    Roast and Toast
  30. Highlight remarkable traits of the honored person

    Be positive and be brief
    Roast and Toasts
  31. A brief tribute to a person or an event being celebrated
  32. A humorous tribute to a person, in which a series of speakers jokingly poke fun
    at him or her
  33. The audience looks to the speaker to see how to deal with the loss, so containemotions and speak clearly
    Eulogies and Other Tributes
  34. The main purpose of a funeral is to refer to the family of the deceased and helpbring them closure
    Eulogies and Other Tributes
  35. Emphasize the deceased’s positive qualities
    Eulogies and Other Tributes
  36. The secondary purpose is to celebrate the life of the deceased, not focus on thedeath
    Eulogies and Other Tributes
  37. Usually delivered to commemorate a deceased friend or family member
  38. Speeches may occur at any type of meal or celebration, not just dinner
    After Dinner & Social Agenda-Setting
  39. Social agenda-setting recalls the mission of the organization in an entertaining way
    After Dinner & Social Agenda-Setting
  40. Recognize each occasion by avoiding canned speeches that may fit many other events
    After Dinner & Social Agenda-Setting
  41. Keep light-hearted and entertaining while providing insight into the topic at hand
    After Dinner & Social Agenda-Setting
  42. Can include sermons, commencement addresses, pep talks, nomination speeches atrallies/conventions
    Speeches of Inspiration
  43. Make your goal clear

    Follow a distinctive organizing device (acronym/motto)

    Close with a dramatic ending
    Speeches of Inspiration
  44. Uplift the audience and see things in a positive light

    Use real-life stories and examples to inspire

    Be dynamic and charismatic in delivery style
    Speeches of Inspiration
  45. Signal to the audience that the speech is coming to an end
    Provide closure on the topic
    Summarize the key points and goals
    Reiterate the thesis or central idea of the speech
    Challenge the audience to respond

    Are functions of what?
    Functions of the Conclusion
  46. A type of signpost that demonstrates to the audience that the speech is coming to
    an end.
  47. End with a quotation, poem, or song lyric
    Tell a story that finishes the opening story
    Pose a rhetorical question 
    Make a startling closing statement
    Link back to the introduction to give the feeling of coming full circle with your topic
    Making the Conclusion Memorable
  48. Keep the conclusion brief; like introductions, allow no more than ___ of the total
    speech time
  49. Involves your word choices that help speakers achieve their speech purpose
  50. Allusion

    Are figures of what?
    Figures of Speech
  51. Analogies,Metaphors, and Similes

    Are figures of what?
    Figures of Speech
  52. States the speaker’s conclusion about some state of affairs?
  53. Whether something is or is not true?
    Claims of Fact
  54. Addresses issues of judgment?
    Claims of Value
  55. Recommending a course of action?
    Claims of Policy
  56. What substantiates the claim? (supports)
  57. What provides reasons/justifications that the
    evidence is valid or supports the claim?
  58. Stress areas of agreement; address opposing views
    Don’t expect major change in attitudes
    Consider the refutation pattern and use of Logos
    Hostile Audience or Strongly Disagrees
  59. Present strong arguments and evidence
    Address opposing views
    Refutation pattern may work best with Logos
    Critical and Conflicted Audience
  60. Use motivational stories to reinforce positive attitudes
    Stress your commonality with listeners;
    Use Pathos
    Clearly tell audience what you want them to think/do
    Sympathetic Audience
  61. Uninformed, Less Educated or Apathetic
    Focus on capturing listeners’ attention

    Stress personal credibility and “likability”

    Stress the topic’s relevance to listeners

    Arrange points logically with Claim pattern
  62. Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
    • addresses audience concerns, demonstrates relevance

    • STEP 2: NEED
    • using Maslow’s Hierarchy, this step isolates and describes the issue that needs
    • to be addressed

    • introduces the answer which will meet the needs – the solution step

    • provides audience with vision of anticipated outcomes if audience implements
    • solution

    • STEP 5: ACTION
    • makes a direct request of the audience
  63. Speaker proves their stance is the most favorable by comparing/contrasting to otheralternatives
    Comparative Advantage Pattern
  64. Comparative Advantage Pattern
    Proven alternative solutions exist and familiar ones are mentioned
  65. Comparative Advantage Pattern
    The audience should already be aware of the issue and searching for a solution
  66. If executed well, refutation may influence audience members who disagree with youor are conflicted
    Refutation Pattern
  67. Works best when audience is aware of issue/problem

    The main goal is to bolster your own position by disproving the opposing claim
    Refutation Pattern
  68. There are (at least) two sides to every argument

    Listeners may be persuaded to accept your claims, but once exposed to counterclaims, they may change their minds
  69. The speaker can protect the audience against counterpersuasion

    If the speaker is aware of, but ignores the counterclaims, speaker credibility can be      impacted negatively
    Inoculation Effect
  70. Errors in logical reasoning that can lead
    to inaccurate conclusions based on?
  71. False or erroneous statements 
    Invalid or deceptive line of reasoning
    Hasty generalizations, bandwagoning, either-or, ad hominem, etc.

    Are types of what?
  72. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    Appealing to human needs.
  73. Expectancy-Outcome Values Theory
    Appealing to Reasons for Behaviors
  74. Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion
    Appealing to Relevance
  75. Speaker Credibility
    Appealing to Speaker Credibility
  76. Involves critical thinking about the message and how it affects the listener
    Central processing
  77. Occurs when listeners lack motivation to pay attention because they feel the content
    is irrelevant, too complex or just unimportant
    Peripheral processing
  78. A stated position for or against an issue, also known as the position statement
  79. The Manuscript Method
    Requires that the speaker write out their speech in essay, not outline form
  80. The Memorized Speech
    Requires the speaker to memorize the speech and delivers it entirely from memory
  81. Impromptu Speaking
    Speaker delivers a speech with little time for planning
  82. What is spontaneous and improvised
  83. Speakers make changes to the speaking plan to meet the immediate needs of the audience
    Extemporaneous Speaking
  84. You must prepare well and practice extensively

    You speak from a keyword outline, not from a manuscript or from memory
    Extemporaneous Speaking
  85. Voice projection to fit the size of the room
  86. Inflections of the voice
  87. The speed of your delivery/speech
  88. Brief silence for effect, and not awkward
  89. Combining all of the elements of vocal deliver
    Vocal variety
  90. Correct formation of word sounds
  91. Clarity or forcefulness with which the sounds are made
  92. The various vocalizations
    Aural channel
  93. How something is said, not what is said
  94. All that the audience sees
    Visual Channel
Card Set:
Com Test
2013-12-13 20:54:22

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