Chapter 2 - Development Processes and Organizations
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What is the sequence of steps or activities that enterprise employs to conceive, design, and commercialize a product known as?
Product development process
A well-defined development process and useful for the following reasons:
- quality assurance
What are the six phases of the generic development process?
- concept development
- system-level design
- testing and refinement
- production ramp-up
What phase of the generic development process begins with opportunity identification?
Phase 0: planning
What is the output of the planning phase?
Project mission statement
What does the mission statement specify?
- the target market for the product
- business goals
- key assumptions
In the ___ phase, needs of the target market are identified, alternative product concepts are generated and evaluated, and one or more concepts are selected for further development and testing.
What is a concept?
A description of the form, function, and features of a product?
What is a concept usually accompanied by?
a set of specifications, and analysis of competitive products, and an economic justification of the project
What phase includes the definition of the product architecture, decomposition of the product into subsystems and components, and preliminary design of key components?
What are the outputs of the system-level design phase?
- a geometric layout of the product
- a functional specification of each of the product’s subsystems
- a preliminary process flow diagram for the final assembly process
A process plan is established in which phase?
What is the output of the detail design phase?
The drawings or computer files describing the geometry of each part and its production tooling, the specifications of the purchased parts, and the process plans for the fabrication and assembly of the product is known as ___.
The detail design phase includes the complete specification of the ___, ___, and ___ of all of the unique parts of the product
geometry, materials, and tolerances
What does the testing and refinement phase involve?
the construction and evaluation of multiple preproduction versions of the product
What are production-intent parts?
parts of early prototypes with the same geometry and material properties as intended for the production version of the product but not necessarily fabricated with the actual processes to be used in production
Early prototypes are also known as what?
___ prototypes are tested to determine whether the product will work as designed and whether the product satisfies the key customer needs.
___ prototypes are usually built with parts supplied by the intended production processes but may not be assembled using the intended final assembly process.
What is the purpose of ramp-up?
Train the workforce and to work out any remaining problems in the production processes
An assessment of the project from both commercial and technical perspectives and is intended to identify ways to improve the development process for future projects is included in the ___.
For generic (market-pull products) the team begins with a ___ and selects appropriate technologies to meet customer needs
For technology-push products, the team begins with a new ___, then finds an appropriate market.
For platform products, the team assumes that the new product will be built around an established ___.
Characteristics of ___ products are highly constrained by the production process
___ products are new products that are slight variations of existing configurations.
Technical or market uncertainties create high risks of failure for ___ products.
Rapid modeling and prototyping enables many design-build-test cycles for ___ products.
A ___ must be decomposed into several subsystems and many components
How are links among individuals created in organizations?
- Reporting relationships
- Financial arrangements
- Physical layout
Organizational links may be aligned with ___, ___, or both.
What is a function?
An area of responsibility usually involving specialized education, training, or experience
What is a project?
A set of activities in the development process for a particular product
In functional organizations, the organizational links are primarily among those who ___.
Perform similar functions
In ___ organization, the organizational links are primarily among those who work on the same project.
A ___ organization is a hybrid of functional and project organizations.
A ___ project organization contains strong project links
A ___ project organization contains weaker project links and relatively stronger functional links
A heavyweight project team is also called
- Integrated product team
- Design-build team
- Product development team
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