Geology Final Exam: Volcanoes and other Igneous Structures

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Canvas47
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253090
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Geology Final Exam: Volcanoes and other Igneous Structures
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2013-12-14 05:36:33
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Geology Final Exam Volcanoes
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Geology Final Exam for Volcanoes
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  1. Explain how/why the chemical composition (e.g. silica content) affects the eruptive style of a volcano.
    Increase in silica content, more viscous magma, Eruptive style: Flow
  2. What are the 3 common types of volcanoes?
    • Shield
    • Cinder Cones
    • Composite Cones
  3. Describe characteristics of a shield volcano (shape/size, structure, magma composition, eruptive style, tectonic setting).
    Massive

    Broad, gentle sloping shape

    Fluid basaltic lava

    Made of layers of basalt

    Very little pyroclastics or pyroclastic flow

    E.g.  Mauna Loa, Kilauea, Iceland 

    Tectonic Setting: Hot Spots
  4. Describe characteristics of a Composite Cone (shape/size, structure, magma composition, eruptive style, tectonic setting).
    Large, conical shape

    Interbedded lavas and pyroclastics

    Silica rich magma (doesn’t flow far), often of andesitic composition

    Violent eruptions

    Tectonic Setting: O/C Convergent Boundaries

    E.g. Mt. St. Helens, Mt. Rainier
  5. Describe characteristics of a Cinder Cone (shape/size, structure, magma composition, eruptive style, tectonic setting).
    Generally a single event (thus small size)

    Steep slope angle (30-40 degrees)

    Built from pyroclastics (ejected lava fragments)

    Occasionally may eject lava, usually from base

    Gas-rich basaltic magma

    Tectonic Setting: Anywhere there is a pocket, or chamber, of basaltic magma

    Sunset Crater
  6. What type of volcano is Mt. St. Helens?
    Composite Cone
  7. What type of volcanoes is Mauna Loa?
    Shield Volcano
  8. What type of volcanoes are the Andes,?
    Composite Cones
  9. What type of volcanoes are the Cascades?
    Composite Cones
  10. Describe pyroclastic flows
    Mix of ash and hot gas flowing down the volcano
  11. Describe lahars
    Volcanic mud flows, ash mixed with water
  12. What is the ophiolite complex
    The structure of the oceanic crust
  13. Describe and identify a Batholith
    massive, discordant: irregular mass of intrusive igneous rock
  14. Describe and identify a Dike
    tabular, discordant: A sheetlike discordant igneous intrusion that cuts across layers of bedded country rock.
  15. Describe and identify a Sill
    tabular, concordant: sheetlike body formed by the injection of magma between parallel layers of preexisting bedded rock.
  16. Describe and identify a Lacolith
    Massive, Concordant

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