CNS damage and recovery

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Author:
juliemarie
ID:
253113
Filename:
CNS damage and recovery
Updated:
2013-12-14 11:35:11
Tags:
neuro recovery SLP
Folders:
Neuro
Description:
Brief description of CNS damage and recovery
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  1. Causes of brain injury
    Name 4 types of brain injury:
    What is the Penumbra?
    • Head Injury: closed injury (no penetration, often occurs in car accidents, sports injuries, most often occurs in young adult males), open injury (penetration of the skull)
    • Cerebrovascular accident: ischemic (clot), hemorrhagic (brain bleed)
    • Tumor
    • infection
    • Penumbra refers to the surrounding areas of the brain that are damaged due to waste products of the primary damage invading nearby tissues
  2. Factors influencing recovery
    Name 4 factors:
    • Age at time of onset (younger is better)
    • size/location of lesion (smaller is better, some brain areas are more sensitive to change)
    • slow onset/rapid onset: (several small slow lesions better than one big event)
    • Recovery environment
  3. Possible Mechanisms of Recovery
    Name the 1 PNS mechanism:
    Name 5 CNS mechanisms:
    • Rengeneration
    • Neurogenesis, collateral sprouting, denervation supersensitivity, latent synapses, reorganization
  4. PNS Regeneration
    ________ is secreted by target cells, it is bound by receptors on the dependent cell, and is ________ transported down its axon to the cell body. This secreted substance is considered a ________, which is secreted by ________. The more _____ secreted, the greater number of _______ that arise from the cell.
    • Nerve growth factor (NGF)
    • retrogradely 
    • trophic substance
    • muscle fibers 
    • NGF
    • neurites
  5. PNS Regeneration
    When axons of ________ neurons are injured, the __________ retracts. If _____ is supplied, then the ________ will not retract. If __________ are supplied at the target tissue, ______ is blocked, and the ______ will retract.
    • postsynaptic 
    • presynaptic terminal
    • NGF
    • presynaptic terminal
    • anti-NGF antibodies
    • NGF
    • presynaptic terminal
  6. Why doesn't the CNS have neuronal regeneration?
    ______ is required for the regeneration and maintenance of synaptic connections in the PNS. PNS regeneration is _______ in mammals, and CNS has _______ capacity to ________. The PNS contains ______ (specifically _____ cells) that block ___________, but the CNS ___________ do not inhibit this protein.
    • NGF
    • hit-or-miss
    • limited
    • regenerate
    • glial cells, schwann cells 
    • oligodendrocyte glial cells
  7. CNS: plasticity and neurogenesis 
    Define plasticity:
    what is synaptic plasticity?
    What is neurogenesis?
    what cells does neurogenesis arise from?
    what is is mainly studied in?
    the only evidence of neurogenesis in the cortex is in:
    • extent to which the brain can reorganize itself
    • development of new connections
    • growth of new neurons
    • stem cells, progenitor cells
    • the hippocampus
    • monkeys
  8. CNS: collateral sprouting
    Define collateral sprouting:
    Occurs when intact neurons, near the site of damage, sprout axonal growths that form synapses with neurons that received inputs from dead neurons. The cell body sends out SOS in the form of trophic substances.
  9. CNS: Denervation supersensitivity
    Define denervation supersensitivity: 
    What is an interesting fact regarding Parkinson's?
    • When a neuron has been deprived of synaptic input, it will become more sensitive to neurotransmitter. 
    • The parkinson's brain can lose up to 75% of neurons before showing symptoms  (remember dopamine in the substantial nigra)
  10. CNS: Latent Synapses 
    What is a latent/silent synapse?
    What occurs to change the latent synapse to an active synapse?
    • A postsynaptic membrane the contains NMDA receptors, but no AMPA receptors
    • NMDA receptors depend on depolarization of AMPA receptors, to activate the AMPA receptor a specific protein and calcium must interact
  11. CNS: Reorganization 
    Extent remains unknown after damage
    List and describe 2 types of reorganization:
    • Rapid reorganization: strengthens existing connections, results from experience
    • Gradual reorganization: establishes new connections, results from collateral sprouting

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