chapter 11 theory

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chapter 11 theory
2013-12-17 15:32:03
IBS 102

chapter 11
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  1. two main systems of the nervous system
    • central nervous system (CNS)
    • peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  2. system composed of the brain and spinal cord
    central nervous system (CNS)
  3. system composed of the nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord to the tissues of the body
    peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  4. nerves that carry impulses to the brain and spinal cord
    sensory (afferent) nerves
  5. nerves that carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord
    motor (efferent) nerves
  6. this system is voluntary in nature. these nerves collect information from and return instructions to the skin, muscles, and joints
    somatic nervous system (SNS)
  7. this system's mostly involuntary functions are controlled by this system as sensory information from the internal environment is sent to the CNS, and, in return, motor impulses from the CNS are sent to involuntary muscles: the heart, glands, and organs
    autonomic nervous system (ANS)
  8. the basic unit of the nervous sytem
    neurons / nerve cells
  9. projections from the cell body that receive neural impulses from a stimulus of some kind
  10. a slender elongated projection that carries the neural impulse toward the next neuron
  11. a substance produced by the Schwann cells that coats the axons in the peripheral nervous system
    myelin sheath
  12. the outer cell membrane of the Schwann cell
  13. from the axon's terminal fibers, the neurotransmitter is released from the cell to travel across the space between these terminal fibers and the dendrites of the next cell. this space is called
  14. the supportive, or stromal, glia are also called
  15. connect neurons and blood vessels and form a structure called the blood-brain barrier (BBB)
  16. prevents or slows the passage of some drugs and disease-causing organisms to the CNS
    blood-brain barrier (BBB)
  17. cells that line the ventricles of the brain and produce cerebrospinal fluid
    ependymal cells
  18. cover the axons of neurons in the CNS, forming their myelin sheaths
  19. perform an active protective function by engulfing and ingesting infectious organisms
  20. the only glial cells that appear in the PNS. these cells form a fatty substance called myelin, which insulates the axons in the PNS
    schwann cells
  21. four parts of the brain
    • cerebrum
    • diencephalon
    • brainstem
    • cerebellum
  22. the largest portion of the brain, divided into two halfs/hemispheres
  23. responsible for thinking, reasoning, and memory
  24. the surfaces of the hemispheres are covered with gray matter and are called
    cerebral cortex
  25. the valleys of the cerebrum
  26. the ridges of the cerebrum
  27. 5 lobes of the cerebrum
    • frontal lobe
    • temporal lobe
    • parietal lobe
    • occipital lobe
    • insular lobe
  28. lobe that contains the function of speech and the motor area that controls voluntary movement on the contralateral side of the body
    frontal lobe
  29. lobe that contains the auditory and olfactory areas
    temporal lobe
  30. lobe that controls the sensations of touch and taste
    parietal lobe
  31. lobe responsible for vision
    occipital lobe
  32. lobe responsible for empathy, interceptive (internal sensing) awareness and cognition
    insular lobes
  33. thick band of nerve fibers that joins the two hemispheres of the cerebrum
    corpus callosum
  34. collection of structures responsible for a number of different functions. located under the cerebrum
    basal ganglia
  35. the diencephalon is composed of
    • thalamus
    • hypothalamus
  36. is responsible for relaying sensory information (with the exception of smell) and translating it into sensations of pain, temperature, and touch
  37. activates, integrates, and controls the peripheral autonomic nervous system, along with many functions such as body temperature, sleep, and appetite
  38. small, rounded structures that participate in the ability to recognize people, places, and objects that are stored in memory
    mammillary bodies
  39. connects the cerebral hemispheres to the spinal cord
  40. three main parts of the brainstem
    midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
  41. connects the pons and cerebellum with the hemispheres of the cerebrum
  42. motor nerves fibers that connect the spinal cord and the cerebellum
    cerebral peduncles
  43. serves as a bridge between the medulla oblongata and the cerebrum
  44. the lowest part of the brainstem, regulates heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing
    medulla oblongata
  45. located inferior to the occipital lobe of the cerebrum, cooridinates voluntary movement but is involuntary in its function
  46. extends from the medulla oblongata to the first lumbar vertebra
    spinal cord
  47. end of the spinal cord
    conus medullaris
  48. how many pairs of spinal nerves are there
  49. act as protective coverings for the CNS and are composed of three layers separated by spaces
  50. tough, fibrous, outer covering of the meninges. hard mother.
    dura mater
  51. the space between the dura mater and arachnoid membrane
    subdural space
  52. thin delicate membrane that takes its name from its spidery appearance
    arachnoid membrane
  53. the space between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater
    subarachnoid space
  54. a clear fluid that protects the brain and spinal cord and removes waste products and monitors from internal changes
    cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  55. thin, vascular membrane that is the innermost of the three meninges. soft mother
    pia mater
  56. the PNS is divided into:
    • 12 pairs of cranial nerves
    • 31 pairs of spinal nerves
  57. capable of producing "fight-or-flight" response. this is the part of the nervous system that helps the individual respond to perceived stress
    sympathetic nervous system
  58. nerve fibers from several spinal nerves form a network
  59. collections of cell bodies in the PNS