DNA Structure and Replication EXAM 3

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  1. levels of DNA structure
    nucleotides, DNA, double helix, chromosome, genome
  2. nucleotide
    • Phosphate group
    • Pentose sugar
    • Nitrogenous base
  3. genetic material must meet this criteria
    • 1.Information
    • 2.Replication
    • 3.Transmission
    • 4.Variation
  4. T H Morgan group
    genes are located on chromosomes
  5. Griffith
    • smooth rough bacteria mice
    • transforms innocuous into harmful
  6. Oswald Avery, Maclyn McCarty, and Colin MacLeod
    • announced that the transformingsubstance was DNA
    • added different enzymes to block DNA, protein, etc
  7. Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase
    • Bacteriaphage 
    • protein vs DNA, DNA wins
  8. Erwin Chargaff
    • DNA varies among different types of species
    • A and T equal amounts C and G equal amounts
  9. Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin
    used xray to find what DNA looked like
  10. Watson and Crick
    • discover the double helix and chemistry of it
    • purine (AG) with pyrimidine (CG)
    • AT, CG (Chargaff rule)
  11. helix turn
    10 bases per turn
  12. DNA structure
    • Sugar carbons 1’ to 5’
    • Base attached to 1’
    • Phosphate attached to 5’

    • bases are held together by hydrogen 
    • CG 3 bonds 
    • TA 2 bonds
  13. DNA strands
    • covalently bonded 
    • Phosphodiester bond – phosphate group links 2 sugars
  14. RNA
    • Phosphate group
    • Ribose sugar
    • Nitrogenous base
  15. replication models
    • Semiconservative
    • Conservative
    • Dispersive
  16. Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl
    see which replication model was right
  17. site of replication
    Origin of replication - Site of start point for replication (replication fork) 

    • Bidirectional - Replication proceeds outward in opposite
    • directions

    • Bacteria have a single origin
    • Eukaryotes require multiple origins
  18. enzymes involved
    • DNA Helicase
    • DNA Topoisomerase
    • Single Stranded Binding Protein 
    • DNA Primase 
    • DNA Polymerase 
    • Ligase
    • Telomerase
  19. continuous strand
    leading (goes towards 5 prime)
  20. Discontinuous Strand
    Lagging (goes by fragments) towards 5 prime but it's on the other side so it's very awkward (okazaki fragments)
  21. Deoxynuceloside triphosphates
    breaks off phosphate so nucleotide can attach on
  22. why is DNA replicaiton accurate?
    • 1.Hydrogen bonding between A and T or G andC more stable than mismatches
    • 2.Active site of DNA polymerase unlikely to
    • form bonds if pairs mismatched
    • 3.DNA polymerase removes mismatched pairs

    • Proofreading results in DNA polymerase
    • backing up and digesting linkages
    • Other DNA repair enzymes
  23. Telomere
    • short nucleotide sequences repeated at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes in ONLY eukaryotes 
    • 3' overhang

    function reduce as it ages (doesn't work in cancers)
  24. chromosome
    made of chromatin
  25. DNA wrapped around histone
    • heterochromatin - compact
    • eurchromatin -not as compact

Card Set Information

DNA Structure and Replication EXAM 3
2013-12-14 19:58:05
biology exam
biology exam 3, good luck with the final!
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