DNA Structure and Replication EXAM 3

Card Set Information

Author:
misol
ID:
253138
Filename:
DNA Structure and Replication EXAM 3
Updated:
2013-12-14 14:58:05
Tags:
biology exam
Folders:
biology,exam,3
Description:
biology exam 3, good luck with the final!
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user misol on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. levels of DNA structure
    nucleotides, DNA, double helix, chromosome, genome
  2. nucleotide
    • Phosphate group
    • Pentose sugar
    • Nitrogenous base
  3. genetic material must meet this criteria
    • 1.Information
    • 2.Replication
    • 3.Transmission
    • 4.Variation
  4. T H Morgan group
    genes are located on chromosomes
  5. Griffith
    • smooth rough bacteria mice
    • transforms innocuous into harmful
  6. Oswald Avery, Maclyn McCarty, and Colin MacLeod
    • announced that the transformingsubstance was DNA
    • added different enzymes to block DNA, protein, etc
  7. Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase
    • Bacteriaphage 
    • protein vs DNA, DNA wins
  8. Erwin Chargaff
    • DNA varies among different types of species
    • A and T equal amounts C and G equal amounts
  9. Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin
    used xray to find what DNA looked like
  10. Watson and Crick
    • discover the double helix and chemistry of it
    • purine (AG) with pyrimidine (CG)
    • AT, CG (Chargaff rule)
  11. helix turn
    10 bases per turn
  12. DNA structure
    • Sugar carbons 1’ to 5’
    • Base attached to 1’
    • Phosphate attached to 5’

    • bases are held together by hydrogen 
    • CG 3 bonds 
    • TA 2 bonds
  13. DNA strands
    • covalently bonded 
    • Phosphodiester bond – phosphate group links 2 sugars
  14. RNA
    • Phosphate group
    • Ribose sugar
    • Nitrogenous base
  15. replication models
    • Semiconservative
    • Conservative
    • Dispersive
  16. Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl
    see which replication model was right
  17. site of replication
    Origin of replication - Site of start point for replication (replication fork) 

    • Bidirectional - Replication proceeds outward in opposite
    • directions

    • Bacteria have a single origin
    • Eukaryotes require multiple origins
  18. enzymes involved
    • DNA Helicase
    • DNA Topoisomerase
    • Single Stranded Binding Protein 
    • DNA Primase 
    • DNA Polymerase 
    • Ligase
    • Telomerase
  19. continuous strand
    leading (goes towards 5 prime)
  20. Discontinuous Strand
    Lagging (goes by fragments) towards 5 prime but it's on the other side so it's very awkward (okazaki fragments)
  21. Deoxynuceloside triphosphates
    breaks off phosphate so nucleotide can attach on
  22. why is DNA replicaiton accurate?
    • 1.Hydrogen bonding between A and T or G andC more stable than mismatches
    • 2.Active site of DNA polymerase unlikely to
    • form bonds if pairs mismatched
    • 3.DNA polymerase removes mismatched pairs

    • Proofreading results in DNA polymerase
    • backing up and digesting linkages
    • Other DNA repair enzymes
  23. Telomere
    • short nucleotide sequences repeated at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes in ONLY eukaryotes 
    • 3' overhang

    function reduce as it ages (doesn't work in cancers)
  24. chromosome
    made of chromatin
  25. DNA wrapped around histone
    • heterochromatin - compact
    • eurchromatin -not as compact

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview