psych test #5

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psych test #5
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2013-12-14 22:25:30
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  1. Personality
    An individual's unique constellation of consistent behavior across a wide variety of situations
  2. Galen
    130-200AD
  3. Choleric
    • bad tempered & irritable
    • yellow bile
    • Galen
  4. Melancholic
    • gloomy & pessimistic 
    • black bile 
    • Galen
  5. Phlegmatic
    • sluggish & unexcitable 
    • phlegm 
    • Galen
  6. Sanguine
    • cheerful & passionate 
    • blood 
    • Galen
  7. Major personality theories
    • Psychoanalytic 
    • Behavioral 
    • Biological
    • Humanistic
  8. Psychoanalytic (people)
    Freud, Jung, Horney
  9. Behavioral (people)
    Skinner, Bandura
  10. Biological (people)
    Eysenck
  11. Humanistic (people)
    Maslow, May, Rodgers
  12. Freud structure of personality
    • Id: Primitive instinctual component of personality
    • Ego: executive component of personality
    • Superego: moral component of the personality
  13. Freud's levels of Awareness
    • Conscious
    • Preconscious
    • Unconscious
  14. Ego Defense Mechanisms
    reduce/prevent anxiety
  15. Types of mechanisms
    Repression: unpleasant thoughts and feelings forced into the unconscious
  16. Projection
    attributing disturbing thoughts and feelings to others
  17. Displacement
    emotional reaction directed at a substitute target
  18. Reaction Formation
    behaving the opposite of your true feelings and desires
  19. Identification
    increasing your self-worth by forming an attachment to another person or group
  20. Stages of Psychosexual Development
    • Oral stage
    • Anal stage
    • Phallic Sage
    • Latent State
    • Genital Stage
  21. Oral Stage
    • 0-1 years old
    • Incorporative 
    • Expulsive 

    • Fixation:
    • - Gullible
    • - Sarcastic
  22. Anal Stage
    • 1-3 years old
    • Expulsive
    • Retentive 
    • messy 
    • miserly
  23. Phallic Stage
    • 3-7 years old
    • Oedipus Complex 
    • Sex identity 
    • Electra Complex
    • - Penis envy
  24. Latent Period
    • 7-13 years old
    • kids play with same sex children
  25. Genital Stage
    • 13+ years old
    • interested in opposite sex
  26. Positive aspects of Freud's Theory
    • Historical influence on Western Psychology 
    • Unconscious forces can influence behavior 
    • Internal conflict can generate distress
    • Emphasis on importance of early experiences 
    • Attempt to explain both normal & abnormal behavior
    • Psychoanalysis has helped some people
    • Generalization in other fields
  27. Negative aspects of the Freud theory
    • Historical influence on psychology
    • Not scientific
    • Dogmatism by Freud & his followers
    • Overemphasis on sex and sexism 
    • not used in psychology departments
  28. Behavioral Perspectives
    • Skinner, Bandura
    • Personality: Pavlovian and Operant conditioning 
    • Emotionality: Pavlovian Conditioning
    • "Voluntary" behavior: Operant Conditioning via Contingencies of reinforcement
    •    - i.e. friendly vs unfriendly, honest vs dishonest
  29. Trait
    A durable disposition to behave in a specific way in a variety of situations
  30. Behavioral Perspectives: Positive aspects
    • Scientific basis and objective measures
    • Success of behavior modification
    • Success of token economies
  31. Behavioral Perspectives: Negative acpects
    • Overemphasis on animal research 
    • Dehumanizing nature of radical behaviorism 
    • Fragmentation of personality
  32. Biological Perspectives
    • Eysenck 
    • Personality
    •    - Genetic influences
    •    - Conditionality
    • Combination of biological and behavioral perspectives
  33. Biological Perspectives: hierarchical traits
    • Extraversion
    • Neuroticism
    • Psychoticism
  34. Extraversion
    • Biological perspectives hierarchical trait
    • Sociable, assertive, active and lively
    •    - high sensitivity to punishment
  35. Neuroticism
    • Biological perspectives hierarchical trait
    • anxious, tense, moody and low in self-esteem
    •    - high sensitivity to punishment
  36. Psychoticism
    • Biological perspectives hierarchical trait
    • egocentric, impulsive, cold and antisocial 
    •    - low sensitivity 
    •    - high optimal level of arousal
  37. Humanistic Perspectives
    • Rodgers, Maslow
    • Emphasis on unique qualities of humans - freedom & personal growth
  38. Humanistic Perspectives: Positive aspects
    Focus on normal, healthy personality
  39. Humanistic perspectives: Negative aspects
    • Not scientific
    • lack of falsifiability and prediction 
    • unrealistic view of human nature?
  40. MMPI
    an objective measure
  41. Projective Techniques
    • Rorschach
    • TAT
  42. Explanations of mental illness
    • Supernatural
    • Biological-Psychological
  43. Historical Fluctuations of explanations of mental illness'
    • Early Greek & roman naturalistic accounts
    •    - Hippocrates and Galen
    • Supernatural accounts during middle ages through renaissance 
    • Biological-psychological accounts
  44. how are mental disorders characterized?
    by "abnormal" behavior, thoughts & feelings
  45. What is abnormal?
    • A statistical deviance: any behavior that is a significant deviation from the norm
    • defined in large part by cultural-societal norms
  46. An important feature of disorders
    • Maladaptiveness 
    •    - does it interfere with social functioning-obligations
    •    - does the individual or society consider it a problem
  47. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V)
    • establishes uniform definitions and standards for diagnosis 
    • lists acceptable labels for all psychological disorders 
    • lists symptoms and criteria for making diagnoses and contains  information on differential diagnosis - how to distinguish a particular disorder from another similar to it.
  48. Criticisms of the DSM-V
    • Distinction b/t having a diagnosed disorder or not can seem arbitrary at times
    • Are undesirable or criminal behaviors really a sign of mental illness or another serious problem
    • Is it failure to cope with a life stressor, or is it a mental illness 
    • To what extent is the situation a problem, rather than the person
  49. Psychotherapy
    • A helping relationship b/t a professional with special training (therapist) and a person in need of help (client/patient) 
    • The therapy of choice is determined by the therapist's theoretical orientation regarding personality factors
    • Many techniques 
    •    - all seem to depend in large part on the client's motivation to improve
  50. around how many different types of therapy are there?
    • over 400
    •    - most are not evidence based
  51. Parts of psychotherapy
    • Psychoanalysis
    • Behavior therapy
    • Cognitive Behavioral therapy
    • Humanistic therapy
    • Pharmacological therapy
  52. Psychoanalysis
    • Sigmund Freud's
    • Aims: 
    •    - to bring unconscious thoughts and emotions to awareness
    •    - help people understand their own thoughts and actions
    • uses free association & dream analysis to bring unconscious material to consciousness 
    •    - This produces catharsis (pent-up emotions associated with unconscious thought and memories)
  53. Behavioral therapy
    based on behaviorism view that human behavior is acquired and thus can be extinguished
  54. Freud vs. Pavlov on how to treat snake phobia
    • Freud: relate the phobia to mother/father
    • Pavlov (behavior therapist) - treat it like an actual fear of snakes
  55. application of Behavior theory
    • Systematic desensitization
    • Aversion therapy 
    • Social skills training
    • Cognitive - behavioral
  56. Cognitive Therapy
    • Therapies that primarily focus on current thoughts and beliefs 
    • Seems to improve people's functioning by changing how they think and what they believe about situations
  57. Humanistic therapy
    • based on the view that people naturally strive to achieve their full potential
    • person-centered therapy
    • caring of persons statements an non-judgmental
  58. Pharmacological Therapy
    • Use of psychotropic drugs to manage symptoms of psychopathology
    •    - Antipsychotic drugs
    •    - Antidepressant drugs
    •    - Antianxiety drugs
  59. Eclectic Therapy
    • combo of other approaches
    • Cognitive + Drug Therapy 
    • Behavioral + Drug therapy 
    • Cognitive-Behavioral + Drug theory
  60. Fear & Anxiety
    • they are natural reactions in dangerous situations 
    • are considered pathological when they interfere with daily functioning
  61. Phobias
    strong, persistent and irrational fear of a specific object or situation interferes with normal functioning
  62. what percent of U.S. adults suffer from a phobia at some point of their lives?
    11%
  63. Most common phobias
    • Spaces
    • Animals
  64. can fears be learned?
    yes
  65. Treatment to phobias
    • Flooding
    •    - Extinction by repeated exposure to feared stimulus 
    • Systematic Desensitization
    •    - Counterconditioning 
    •      - relaxation in presence of feared stimuli
    • Drug therapy
  66. Drug therapies for phobias
    • Banzodiazepines (GABA agonists): a tranquilizer is often prescribed for anxiety disorders
    •    - temporary
  67. Panic Disorder (PD)
    • involve rapid breathing, increased heart rate, chest pains, sweating, trembling and faintness
    • experienced by 1-3% of adults
    • Hyperventilation is a key symptom 
    • Panic attacks (PA) last a few minutes but can last longer
  68. What does hyperventilation cause?
    increased CO2 including symptoms of suffocation & feeling of uncontrollable life threatening event
  69. treatment for panic disorder
    • Behavior/Cognitive Behavior theory 
    • Anti-depressant/antianxiety drugs
  70. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
    • Obsessions: repetitive, unwelcome streams of thought
    • Compulsions: repetitive, almost irresistible actions
    • Checking and cleaning are two very common compulsive behaviors
  71. OCD therapy
    Exposure therapy: The patient is exposed to the situation the brings on the compulsive behavior, but is prevented from engaging in it
  72. Excessive Anxiety (GAD)
    • Generalized anxiety disorder
    • The experience of almost constant an exaggerated worry 
    • 5% of population will experience GAD
    • co-diagnosed with mood disorders like depression
  73. Mood Disorders
    • Depression
    • Mania
    • Bipolar disorder
  74. Unipolar Depression
    • Major Depression 
    • person feels worthless, guilt and powerlessness
    • Ahedonia: loss of feeling pleasure
    • Sleep abnormalities 
    • person with it may talk about & attempt suicide 
    • video seen in class about lady with this
  75. Possible causes for Unipolar Depression
    • Neurochemical imbalance 
    • Attributional Style 
    •    - pessimistic
  76. Treatments for Unipolar Depression
    • Cognitive-Behavior theory helps the individual develop more positive beliefs & behaviors 
    • Drug therapies: anti-depressants
  77. tricylics
    • block reuptake of DA, NE, 5HT
    • anti-depressant
  78. SSRI
    • block reuptake of 5HT
    • anti-depressant
  79. MAO inhibitors
    • block inactivation DA, NE, 5HT
    • prolong effects of NE, DA
    • anti-depressant
  80. Atypical
    • act primarily DA, NE
    • anti-depressant
  81. What do anti-depressants do
    prolong the activity of the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin
  82. 5HT
    Serotonin
  83. Shock therapy for Unipolar Depression
    • ECT Electroconvulsive shock therapy: used for patients who have treatment-resistant depressions or who are strongly suicidal
    • Shock to patients head and they have a sort of seizure 
    • Temporarily relieves symptoms of depression
    • video of this seen in class
    • 90-120 volts used in shock in one of the videos
  84. Mania
    • mood disorder
    • state of extreme exuberance and agitation
    • Symptoms include:
    •    - Constantly active and uninhibited, and may be very happy or very irritable
    •    - Shopping sprees
    •    - Sexual indiscretions
  85. Bipolar disorder
    • A cycling of mood b/t periods of mania & depression 
    • Bipolar I disorder: at least one episode of mania
    • Bipolar II disorder: cycles of major depression and hypomania - mild form of mania
  86. Treatment for Bipolar disorder
    • Cognitive-Behavior Therapy
    • Drug therapy:
    •    - Lithium is a naturally occurring chemical that is used to treat mania
    •    - Valproate and anticonvulsant drugs are also used to treat bipolar disorders
  87. Schizophrenic disorders types
    • Disorganized- inappropriate behavior and emotions, incoherent language 
    • Paranoid- delusions of persecution or grandeur w/ hallucinations 
    • Catatonic- Frozen, rigid, or excitable behavior 
    • Undifferentiated- mixed set of symptoms
  88. What is schizophrenia
    • DSM-IV diagnosis of it requires the person to exhibit a complete deterioration of daily activities along with at least two of the following symptoms:
    •    - hallucinations (auditory)
    •    - Delusions or thought disorders
    •    - Incoherent speech
    •    - Grossly disorganized behavior
    •    - Loss of normal emotional responses and social behaviors
  89. Positive symptoms of Schizophrenia
    • Positive symptoms: behaviors that are notable b/c of their presence 
    •    - Hallucinations: hearing voices
    •    - Delusions: unfounded beliefs 
    •    - Disordered thinking: a deficit in utilizing "executive functions"
  90. Negative symptoms of Schizophrenia
    • Negative symptoms: behaviors that are notable b/c of their absence 
    •    - lack of emotional expression
  91. Causes of Schizophrenia
    • Genetic influences
    • However it appears that certain people develop it w/out a genetic basis
    • Brain development/damage
    • Anatomical involvement: Thalamus, Striatum, PFC 
    • Neurochemical imbalance - Dopamine hypothesis, excess DA activity in limbic system
  92. Schizophrenia therapy
    • Antipsychotics: DA antagonists 
    •    - limbic sys decrease positive symptoms 
    •    - Side effects: parkinson like effects
    • Atypical antipsychotics (multi NT, DA & 5HT subtype antagonists)
  93. Dissociative Identity Syndrome (DIS)
    • multiple personality disorder
    • Symptoms: 2 or more distinct personalities co-exist w/out inter-personality awareness
  94. Some possible causes for DIS
    • Repression of traumatic events
    • latrogenisis
  95. Therapy professionals

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