when a consumer has doubts regarding a purchase made. a function of (1) the degree of commitment to the decision (2) the importance of the decision to consumers (3) the difficulty of choosing among consumers (4) the individuals tendency to experience anxiety
to reduce dissonance, a consumer can
increase the desirability of the brand purchased, Decrease the desirability of rejected alternatives, Decrease the importance of the purchase decision, Reverse the purchase decision (return)
When negative emotions are aroused by the use of a product or service, markets validate the consumption for high guilt products
the use of one product may require or suggest the use of other products; retailers can promote such items as (1) jointly, (2) display them together (3) train sales personnel to make relevant complimentary sales
Stringent product liability laws
made firms responsible for harm caused by products not only when the product is used as specified by the manufacturer, but in any reasonably foreseeable use of the products.
the evaluation process
satisfied or dissatisfied based on instrumental performance, symbolic performance, or affective performance
Firms need to satisfy consumer expectations by
Creating reasonable expectations through
promotional efforts, and Maintaining consistent quality so the reasonable expectations are fulfilled.
continue to buy the same brand though they do not have an emotional attachment to it
the costs of finding, evaluating, and adopting another solution.
commitment to the brand – it is a biased behavioral response expressed over time.
Net Promoter Score
indirect word-of-mouth (WOM) measure of true attitudinal loyalty. There are three categories of consumers: promoters, passively satisfied and Detractors. NPS = Promoters minus Detractors
Turnover in a firm's customer base
Attracting new users to the product category, Capturing competitors’ current customers, Encouraging current customers to use more, be repeat purchasers, and committed customers
Developing a core product
to build a customer relationship around , Customizing the relationship to the individual customer, Augmenting the core service or product with extra benefits, Pricing in a manner to encourage loyalty, Marketing to employees so that they will perform well for customers
A consumer using a product in a new way
Occurs when a consumer actively acquires a product that is not used or used only sparingly relative to its potential use