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The flashcards below were created by user ctryhurn on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. To calculate z-score
  2. Fromale for z-score to data value
    X = µ + (zσ)
  3. 3 types of probability
    • subjective (personal judgement)
    • Analytic/Theoretical - study all possible outcomes
    • Expected relative frequency (Empirical) - on the long run, average
  4. The Addition Rule
    • given mutually exclusive events, sum the probabilities
    • keyword: OR
  5. Multiplication Rule
    • for joint probabilities
    • keyword: AND
  6. Chi Square Goodness of Fit
    • Used to test frequency distributions for ONE dimension
    • Ei= npi || df = (k-1)
  7. Chi Square: Contingency
    • Er,c = (sum of Row) x (sum of column)
    • sample size

    df = (r-1)(c-1)
  8. When do we reject the null?
    x2(observed) > x2(critical), reject the null
  9. Sampling Error
    Random variability btwn observations or statistics due to chance
  10. Sampling distribution
    The distribution of a statistic over repeated sampling from a specified population
  11. properties of Sample Means
    • the mean of the sample is equal to the population mean (no calculation)
    • the standard deviation of the sample is (standard error of the mean)
  12. Variance formula
  13. The Null Hypothesis
    • The hypothesis that the manipulation had no effect.
    • always contains = or ≤ or ≥
  14. The alternative hypothesis
    always contains ≠, < or >
  15. The critical values
    • represent the point at which we reject the null
    • we reject the null when we exceed the critical value
  16. 2 types of hypothesis tests
    One tailed: one direction for rejection; left or right tailed

    2 tailed: rejects null when value is too extreme in either direction; non directional
  17. Decision based on a p-value
    If p ≤ α (in critical region), reject the null

    If p ≥ α (not in critical region), fail to reject the null
  18. Types of errors
    Type I error occurs if the null hypothesis is rejected but it's actually true (most serious)

    Type II error occurs when the null hypothesis is not rejected but it's actually false

Card Set Information

2010-06-30 14:22:43

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