Geology Final Exam: Deformation
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The force applied to a given area
Changes, caused by stress, in the shape or size of a rock body
What are the 3 types of differential stress and what type of deformation do they cause?
Compressional Stress: shortens/thickens a rock unit. Causes folding.
Tensional Stress: elongates/thins a rock unit
Shear Stress: causes adjacent parts to slide by one another; smears/tears a rock unit
- Compressional Stress (Divergent)
- Tensional Stress (Compressional)
- Shear Stress (Tensional)
All changes in the original form and/or size of a rock body (folds, faults, joints).
What are Anticlines?
Up folded or arched rock layers(oldest material)
What are Synclines?
Downfolds/thoughs of rock layers(youngest material)
What are folds?
Flat level surfaces that have been bent or curved because of pressure and high temperature
What are faults?
Fractures is rocks along which movement has occurred.
What is a joint?
A fracture with no movement
What is a hanging wall
- Moves down relative to footwall
- Results from tensional stress
Describe the 3 types of faults, their associated forces, and specific examples of each.
Normal faults(tensional) - Hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall. Fault block mtns.
Reverse and thrust faults(compressional) - Hanging wall moves up relative to footwall.
Right/left lateral faults - Dominant displacement is horizontal, parallel to the strike of the fault.
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