multip-lectures1 -5

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cmob011
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multip-lectures1 -5
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Lectures1 -5
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  1. computer information can be represented through audio, video, and animation in addition to traditional media (i.e., text, graphics/drawings, images).
    Multimedia
  2. Is the field concerned with the computer controlled integration of text, graphics, drawings, still and moving images (Video), animation, audio, and any other media where every type of information can be represented, stored, transmitted and processed digitally
    Multimedia
  3. What is Multimedia?
    • Multi
    • Media
  4. Multi
    • combining form
    • many or much
    • more than one
  5. Media
    • combining form
    • Picture
    • Audio
    • Video
    • Animation
    • Hypertext
    • Text
  6. an application which uses a collection of multiple media sources e.g. text, graphics, images, sound/audio, animation and/or video.
    Multimedia Application
  7. A text which contains links to other texts. The term was invented by Ted Nelson around 1965.
    Hypertext
  8. Traversal through pages of hypertext is therefore usually non-linear
    Hypertext Navigation
  9. Is not constrained to be text-based. It can include other media, e.g., graphics, images, and especially the continuous media – sound and video.
    HyperMedia
  10. Example Hypermedia Applications
    • The World Wide Web (WWW)
    • Powerpoint
    • Adobe Acrobat
    • Many others
  11. Examples of Multimedia Applications include:
    • World Wide Web
    • Multimedia Authoring, e.g. Adobe/Macromedia Director
    • Hypermedia courseware
    • Video-on-demand
    • Interactive TV
    • Computer Games
    • Virtual reality
    • Digital video editing and production systems
    • Multimedia Database systems
  12. A system capable of processing multimedia data and applications.
    Multimedia System
  13. Characterised by the processing, storage, generation, manipulation and rendition of Multimedia information
    Multimedia System
  14. Multimedia system has four basic characteristics:
    • Multimedia systems must be computer controlled.
    • Multimedia systems are integrated.
    • The information they handle must be represented digitally.
    • The interface to the final presentation of media is usually interactive.
  15. Challenges for Multimedia Systems
    • Distributed Networks
    • Temporal relationship between data
  16. inter-media scheduling
    Synchronisation
  17. Desirable Features for a Multimedia System
    • Very High Processing Power
    • Multimedia Capable File System
    • Special Hardware/Software needed
    • Data Representations
    • Efficient and High I/O
    • Special Operating System
    • Storage and Memory
    • Network Support
    • Software Tools
  18. File Formats that support multimedia should be easy to handle yet allow for compression/decompression in real-time.
    Data Representations
  19. RAID technology.
    Special Hardware/Software needed
  20. Needed to deliver real-time media — e.g. Video/Audio Streaming.
    Multimedia Capable File System
  21. Input and output to the file subsystem needs to be efficient and fast. Needs to allow for real-time recording as well as playback of data. e.g. Direct to Disk recording systems.
    Efficient and High I/O
  22. Allow access to file system and process data efficiently and quickly
    Special Operating System
  23. large storage units and large memory
    Storage and Memory
  24. Client-server systems common as distributed systems common.
    Network Support
  25. User friendly tools needed to handle media, design and develop applications, deliver media.
    Software Tools
  26. Components of a Multimedia System
    • Capture devices
    • Storage Devices
    • Communication Networks
    • Computer Systems
    • Display Devices
  27. Video Camera, Video Recorder, Audio Microphone, Keyboards, mice, graphics tablets, 3D input devices, tactile sensors, VR devices. Digitising Hardware
    Capture devices
  28. Hard disks, CD-ROMs, DVD-ROM, etc
    Storage Devices
  29. Local Networks, Intranets, Internet, Multimedia or other special high speed networks.
    Communication Networks
  30. Multimedia Desktop machines, Workstations, MPEG/VIDEO/DSP Hardware
    Computer Systems
  31. CD-quality speakers, HDTV,SVGA, Hi-Res monitors, Colour printers etc.
    Display Devices
  32. Multimedia Advantages
    • Engrossing – deep involvement
    • Multi-sensory
    • Creates knowledge connections
    • Individualized
    • Teacher and student creation
  33. deep involvement
    Engrossing
  34. Multimedia Disadvantages
    • Lost in cyberspace
    • Lack of structure
    • Non-interactive – if one-way, no feedback
    • Text intensive content
    • Complex to create
    • Time consuming
    • Cognitive overload
    • Linear content
  35. Multimedia Growth
    • Marketing Standpoint
    • User Standpoint
  36. Marketing Standpoint
    • Computer price
    • Multimedia titles
    • Hype
    • Value added
  37. killer applications
    Hype
  38. enhances computer use
    Value added
  39. User Standpoint
    • User control
    • Individualization
    • Action
  40. Games: action and graphics
    Action + storytelling
    Physical coordination + mental outwitting
    Entertainment
  41. Accommodates different learning styles: association vs. experimentation; auditory vs. visual
    Provides feedback, levels of difficulty, evaluates skills, nonlinear presentations
    Education
  42. Major Categories of Multimedia Titles
    • Entertainment
    • Education
    • Corporate communications
    • Reference
  43. Attract attention to a message
    Corporate communications
  44. CD: encyclopedias, census data, directories, dictionaries
    Reference
  45. Delivering Multimedia
    • Compact disc
    • Kiosk
    • Online
  46. Inexpensive, easy mass produce and distribute
    Compact disc
  47. Computer system to access info, perform transactions or play games
    Convenience, reduces personnel costs, but expensive maintenance
    Kiosk
  48. Web pages, product advertisement, demos
    Online
  49. Multimedia Issues
    • Images
    • Videos
  50. Adds information that is often difficult to describe with words
    Color
  51. Captures the true color of the specimen
    Most common use of color
    Watercolor, gouache, acrylic paints, colored pencil, mixed media/computer
    Natural color
  52. Use of standard colors to portray different structures.
    Often used in medical and/or instructional illustrations
    Symbolic color
  53. Color is used as part of the overall design to communicate information quickly, precisely, and noticeably
    Design color
  54. Irreducible components of color
    Primary colors
  55. primary colors of LIGHT
    mixture involves the addition of spectral components
    ADDITIVE
  56. How many pixel does computer monitor have?
    3 subpixel
  57. primary colors of pigments
    mixture involves the absorption of spectral components
    SUBTRACTIVE
  58. Qualities of color
    • Hue
    • Saturation
    • Brightness
    • Temperature
    • Transparency & opacity
  59. The named color
    Hue
  60. chroma or tone
    Saturation
  61. Intensity or value
    Brightness
  62. colors of computer monitors; larger color gamut than CMYK; colors appear brighter, more vibrant
    RGB
  63. colors of transparent inks in 4 process printing;
    smaller gamut; many RGB colors “out of gamut”, cannot be printed in CMYK inks.
    CMYK
  64. A single dot on the screen which may be of any colour. Multiple pixels, thousands, even millions are combined to create multimedia objects such as images, animations and videos
    pixel
  65. Determines the number of pixels of a multimedia object and applies similarly to parameters of multimedia devices such as cameras, displays, mobile devices such as smartphones and PDA, etc.
    resolution
  66. scalable format
    • .SWFs
    • .WMV & .WMA    
    • .GIF
  67. A 16 by 9 aspect ratio
    widescreen
  68. An object will change the resolution of that object.
    Resizing
  69. A 4 by 3 aspect ratio
    standard
  70. b?
    bit
  71. B?
    byte
  72. k?
    kilo
  73. M?
    mega
  74. G?
    giga
  75. T?
    tera
  76. 1 byte?
    8 bits
  77. 1kB?
    1000bytes
  78. 1MB?
    1000kb
  79. 1GB?
    1000MB
  80. 1TB?
    1000GB
  81. represented by a lower case b
    bit
  82. represented by an upper case B
    byte
  83. helps to keep file sizes low and data rates manageable by packaging the data so that only the most key components are retained.
    Compression
  84. A single file is typically used to reduce the size of the file for transfer
    Zipping
  85. Screen divided into individual picture elements, or pixels
    monitor
  86. Mostly used in context of binary images
    bitmap
  87. One byte for each color for every pixel (24-bit color)
    Color maps, or pixmap
  88. Qualities of a good multimedia monitor
    • Size
    • refresh rate
    • dot pitch
  89. Allow more or less light to pass through them, depending upon the strength of an electric field
    Crystals
  90. Flat screen displays
    LCD
  91. Standard to permit interface for both hardware and control logic between computers and music synthesizers
    Musical Instruments Digital Interface (midi)
  92. Species cables, circuits, connectors, and electrical signals to be used
    Hardware standard
  93. Types and formats of messages to be transmitted to/from synthesizers, control units (keyboards), and computers
    Message standard
  94. Required in the computer to communicate with midi instruments
    midi interface
  95. Analyzes an image to translate symbols into character codes
    OCR software
  96. Something present in nature
    Real image
  97. Representation of real image in terms of pixels
    Digital image
  98. Snapshot of an instance
    Still image
  99. Sequence of images giving the impression of continuous motion
    Motion image
  100. Required for use of video camera to input video stream into computer
    Video input card
  101. Allows the capture of a single frame of data from video stream
    Frame grabber
  102. Used to input original sounds (analog)
    Microphones and midi keyboards
  103. Defines the movement in terms of two numbers { left/right and up/down on the screen, with respect to one corner
    Mouse
  104. A trackball with a handle
    Joystick
  105. Popular media for storage and transport of data
    cd-roms and video disks
  106. Can typically store about 600MB of information
    cd-roms
  107. allow a few gigabytes of data on a single disk
    dvd-roms
  108. Provide artificial stimuli to the senses of the user
    Virtual Reality Devices
  109. Primary stimuli
    • visual
    • aural
  110. Presented on a screen or head-mounted projection device
    Visual output
  111. An inexpensive version of cave for desktop systems
    ImmersaDesk
  112. Disables visual stimuli from outside world from reaching the user
    Head-mounted displays
  113. Small at screens are made using lcd
    Limitations
  114. Change in position of stationary object when viewed from slightly dierent position
    Parallax
  115. Project the image directly on the retina of viewer's eyes
    Retinal images
  116. Accomplished by means of some form of radiated signal
    Position sensing
  117. Can be a continuous stream of data or sent only upon request
     Sensor output
  118. Reduces the amount of network trac but may miss quick changes in position
    Polling
  119. Speech or voice recognition
    Voice input
  120. Translate the signals from computer to network and the other way round
    Network interface
  121. Each character represented by a set of bytes (typically from 7 to 16)
    Serial and parallel
  122. May be transmitted in parallel or serial
    Bits
  123. Faster but requires extra wires
    Parallel transmission
  124. Uses 7 bits per character, but extended to use 8 bits to represent special characters
    ascii
  125. Fixed-width. uniform text and character encoding scheme
    Unicode
  126. 32-bit character encoding
    Includes Unicode as one 16-bit portion of the standard
    iso/iec 10646-1:1993 standard
  127. Used to inform the device of beginning and end of serial transmission
    Start/Stop/Error-checking codes
  128. A group of programs from the same company sold in a single package.
    software suite
  129. Used to develop cost estimates, budgets, and reports.
    Spreadsheet software
  130. Used to control and retrieve information used in projects.
    Database software
  131. Used to coordinate the work of people and tasks to ensure that projects are completed on time.
    Project management software
  132. _ Microsoft Word
    _ WordPerfect
    Word  Processors
  133. _Excel
    Spreadsheets
  134. _Q+E Database/VB
    Databases
  135. _ PowerPoint
    Presentation Tools
  136. help us work with the important basic elements of your project:  its graphics, images, sound, text and moving pictures.
    Elemental  tools
  137. Elemental tools includes:
    • Painting And Drawing Tools
    • Cad And 3-D Drawing Tools
    • Image Editing Tools
    • OCR Software
    • Sound Editing Programs
    • Tools For Creating Animations And Digital Movies
    • Helpful Accessories
  138. The most important items in your toolkit because the impact of the graphics in your project will likely have  the greatest influence on the end user.
    Painting and drawing tools
  139. Dedicated to producing excellent bitmapped images .
    Painting software
  140. Dedicated to producing line art that is easily printed to paper.  Drawing  packages include powerful and expensive computer-aided design (CAD)  software.
    Drawing software
  141. A software used by architects, engineers, drafters, artists  and others to create precision drawings or technical illustrations.
    CAD (computer-aided design)
  142. Specialized and powerful tools for enhancing and retouching existing bitmapped images
    Ex: Photoshop
    Image editing applications
  143. A flat-bed scanner and your computer you can save many hours of typing printed words and get the job done faster and more accurately.
    Ex: Perceive
    • Optical Character Recognition
    • (OCR) software
  144. Are sequences of bitmapped graphic scenes (frames), rapidly played back
    Animations and digital movies
  145. Let you edit and assemble video clips captured from camera, animations, scanned images, other digitized movie segments.
    Movie-making tools
  146. Another sequencing/editing program, with capabilities similar to those of Cakewalk.
    Cubase
  147. Mature program for creating audio for multimedia projects and the web that integrates well with other Macromedia products such as Flash and Director.
    Macromedia Soundedit
  148. Deal with accessing and editing the actual sampled sounds that make up audio
    Digital Audio tools
  149. A very powerful and popular digital audio toolkit; emulates a professional audio studio — multitrack productions and sound file editing including digital signal processing effects.
    Cool Edit
  150. A sophisticated PC-based program for editing audio WAV files.
    Sound Forge
  151. A high-end integrated audio production and editing environment — MIDI creation and manipulation; powerful audio mixing, recording, and editing software.
    Pro Tools
  152. A powerful publishing tool from Adobe.  Uses vector graphics; graphics can be exported to Web.
    Adobe Illustrator:
  153. Software for making graphics specifically for the web.
    Macromedia Fireworks
  154. The standard in a graphics, image processing and manipulation tool.
    – Allows layers of images, graphics, and text that can be separately     manipulated for maximum flexibility.
        – Filter factory permits creation of sophisticated lighting-effects  filters.
    Adobe Photoshop
  155. A text and web graphics editing tool that supports many bitmap formats such as GIF, PNG, and JPEG.
    Macromedia Freehand:
  156. An intuitive, simple video editing tool for nonlinear editing.
    Adobe Premiere:
  157. A powerful video editing tool that enables users to add and change existing movies.
    Adobe After Effects
  158. A video editing tool by Apple; Macintosh only.
    Final Cut Pro:
  159. API used by Java to construct and render 3D graphics, similar to the way in which the Java Media Framework is used for handling media files.
    Java3D
  160. Windows API that supports video, images,     audio and 3-D animation
    DirectX:
  161. Highly portable, most popular 3-D API.
    OpenGL
  162. Rendering Tools
    • 3D Studio Max
    • Softimage XSI
    • Maya
    • RenderMan
  163. Rendering tool that includes a number of very high-end professional tools for character animation, game     development, and visual effects production.
    3D Studio Max:
  164. A powerful modeling, animation, and rendering package used for animation and special effects in films and games.
    Softimage XSI:
  165. competing product to Softimage; as well, it is a complete modeling package.
    Maya
  166. Rendering package created by Pixar
    RenderMan:
  167. A simpler approach to animation, allows very quick development of effective small animations for the web.
    GIF Animation Packages
  168. Authoring programs link graphics, text, and other objects. They are used to create:
    Interactive tutorials
    Simulations
    Games
    Multimedia Authoring Software
  169. Types Of Authoring Tools
    • Card- or Page-based Tools
    • Icon-based Tools
    • Time-based Tools
  170. A program that helps you write multimedia applications.
    multimedia authoring tool
  171. Object-oriented
    Page-based authoring systems
  172. Provide a visual programming approach to organizing and presenting multimedia.
    Icon-based, event-driven tools
  173. Are the most common of multimedia authoring tools.
    Time-based authoring tools
  174. Allows users to create interactive movies by using the score metaphor, i.e., a timeline arranged in parallel event sequences.
    Macromedia Flash:
  175. Uses a movie metaphor to create interactive presentations — very powerful and includes a built-in scripting language, Lingo, that allows creation of complex interactive movies.
    Macromedia Director:
  176. Similar to Authorware in many ways, uses a type of flowcharting metaphor. However, the flowchart nodes can encapsulate information in a more abstract way (called frames) than simply subroutine levels.
    Quest
  177. A mature, well-supported authoring product based on the Iconic/Flow-control metaphor.
    Authorware
  178. A video capture/processing utility for 32-bit Windows platforms, licensed under the GNU GPL.
    Virtual Dub
  179. A free, easy-to-use audio editor and recorder for Windows, Mac OS X, GNU/Linux and other operating systems.
    Audacity
  180. A complete web authoring system that combines web file management and easy-to-use WYSIWYG web page editing. Designed to be extremely easy to use.
    KompoZer

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