Geology Final Exam: Earthquakes
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What is an Earthquake?
The vibration of Earth produced by the sudden release of energy due to the sudden movement along a fault.
The geographic point on Earth’s surface directly above the focus of an earthquake.
The point along a fault at which slipping initiates an earthquake.
What is a seismograph?
Records Earth's movement relative to a stationary mass.
List 3 types of seismic waves.
- Primary (P) Waves
- Secondary (S) Waves
- Surface (L) Waves
Which seismic wave is the fastest?
Primary (P) Waves
Which seismic wave is the most destructive?
Surface (L) Waves
How do we locate the epicenter?
1) Determine time interval between arrival of P and S wave (lag time)
2) Use travel time graph to determine distance from epicenter
3) Draw circle with radius equal to distance to epicenter around each station. Repeat for 3 stations
4) Epicenter is the point where all three circles intercept
Identify and describe the two scales used to describe earthquake size?
- Mercalli Intensity scale
- Measures the intensity of an earthquake from the amount of damage it causes.
- Richter Scale
- Developed for shallow, local earthquakes and does not work well for large earthquakes. Based on amplitude of largest seismic wave.
What are problems with measuring intensity?
Destruction is not always a true measure of an earthquake's actual severity.
List/explain hazards associated with earthquakes.
-Liquefaction of the ground (Solid earth liquifies -unsaturated mud)
-Seiches (Rhythmic slashes of water)
-Tsunamis (Seismic sea waves)
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