Biology 110 Final!!

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Biology 110 Final!!
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Final Exam fro Bio!!!
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  1. What are two requirements for putting order
    (organization) into a system?
    Energy and Information
  2. List 2 characteristics of living things
    in addition to organization and the answers in a.
    • Composed of cells
    • Interact with others in ecosystems
    • Contribute to the evolution of their species
    • Can reproduce
    • are regulated
  3. Give the Biological definition of a species?
    A group of organisms who can interbreed, in nature, producing fertile offspring.
  4. Give one real example of organisms that are
    different species but must be very closely related since they meet two out of
    three requirements of being the same species (name the two and tell what
    requirements they DO meet).
    Horses and Donkeys interbreed naturally,but their offspring aren’t fertile.
  5. Explain why individuals
    do or do not play any role in evolution.
    Individuals contribute to the evolution of their population by either reproducing or not.
  6. Correct the following statement: Members of
    species have the same binomial name.
    Members of A species have the samebinomial name.
  7. What is taxonomy?.
    The naming and classification of organisms
  8. Before radiometric dating of rocks, what did
    paleontologists use to compare the ages of  fossils and how did it work?


    They used sedimentary rock. It is formed gradually-In layers. Thus, the deeper layers are older than the shallower layers. This provides paleontologists w/ a geological clock.
  9.  

    Why was the geological
    principle of gradualism important to Darwin?
    It suggested that earth was very old & for Darwin, this meant there had been enough time for evolution to generate all the different forms of life.
  10. Describe two patterns in the
    fossil record that contribute to our understanding of evolution.
    1. Species living today do not have any fossils in the oldest rock.   

    2.Species found in the oldest rock are not alive today, showing extinction.   

    3.Fossils of ancient organisms are similar to modern organisms, suggestingevolutionary sequences.   

    4.Fossils of transition organisms show links in evolutionary sequences.
  11. The diagram below represents sedimentary rock with fossils:     
     Salamander-1  Lizard-1  1(top)   
     Salamander-2 Lizard-2   2
     Salamander-3                3
               

    a.If Salamander-3 is a
    common ancestor to all the other fossils which pair of fossils will be more
    similar, salamander-1 and lizard-1 or salamander -2 and lizard-2? Explain your
    answer.
    Salamander-2 and Lizard 2 will be more similar. since they are only 1 layer above Salamander-3 they had less time to evolve. Salamander-1 and Lizard-1 had more time to evolve & change from their common ancestor, and thus each other.
  12. The diagram below represents sedimentary rock with fossils:     
     Salamander-1  Lizard-1     1 (top)    
    Salamander-2 Lizard-2       2 Salamander-3                    3

    Which pair of DNAs will
    have more different units between them: salamander-1 DNA and lizard-1 DNA, or
    salamander-2 DNA and lizard-2 DNA? (you do not have to explain your answer).
    Salamander-1 & Lizard-1
  13. What other kind of
    molecule besides DNA is often compared between species to study evolutionary
    relationships?


    Protein
  14. a.                  
    What is the term for the relationship between the bones of a human arm and a bird wing, and what does it suggest about the evolution of humans and birds?
    The term is homologous. This suggests that humans & birds evolved from a common ancestor with the same bone pattern in its forelimbs
  15. Does the fact that bats and birds have wings mean they are more closely related in evolution than bats and mice are? Explain your answer clearly (you might want to relate it to a).
    No, because the common ancestor of bats and birds does not have wings. It has a forelimb, just like the ancestor to bats & mice and humans & birds in a). The wings of bats and birds are not homologous.
  16. Explain why its useful to study embryos, not just adults, when looking for evidence of evolution. Give two specific examples in your answer.
  17. Embryos have structures that may not be present in adults. Example- human embryos have gills and a tail.
  18. Give one example of a vestigial structure and name the organism that has it.
    Snake pelvic girdle; human tailbone
  19. If someone is lactose-intolerant, how could they have nursed (been breast-fed) and
    healthy as a baby?
    • People are not lactose intolerant as babies;  they lose the ability to digest lactose after
    • childhood.


  20. Bonus: How can a lactose-intolerant person eat yogurt, which is made from milk?
    The lactose milk is converted to lactic acid- which turns milk into yogurt.
  21. Most adult dogs are lactose-intolerant. Does that mean dogs that candrink milk share a more recent common ancestor with humans who can drink milk than with lactose-intolerant dogs? Explain your answer (think about the Krogh essay)
    Independent changes in DNA occured in diffrent groups of humans to make adults able to drink milk. So, the same independent change occured in some dog groups. Dogs are more closely related to other dogs than to any humans.
  22. Who or what is the selecting agent in natural selection?___________________
    The Environment
  23. What is a resource? Do not give examples but tell what it is in general.
    Anything an organism needs from its environment to survive &/or reproduce.
  24. According to Darwin, natural selection occurs because of competition between members of a species. Why must members of a species compete with each other?
    Because members of a species need all the same resources and resources are limited.
  25. In a certain fish population 65% are bright orange, 20% are blue with brown stripes, and 5% are dull brown. The waters these fish inhabit contain a bright orange kelp forest.

    What is the term for the bight orange fish color in these waters?
    Adaptive trait
  26. Assuming no changes in these waters, what do you expects in the next generation of the population, with respect to the proportion of each color? Explain your answer clearly and completely.
    The next generation should have a higher % of bright orange fish, because orange fish have more offspring than the other colors of fish do. The percentage of the 3 other colors should decrease
  27. Suppose that many years later the population is observed to be 100% bright orange. Why might you worry about the fish now?


    Without variation in the population, when the environment changes someday the population may be unable to survive the new conditions and become extinct.
  28. What are two ways (Not including migration) that a 100% bright orange fish population could be less than 100% orange again, and include some other colors? (Think about this and make sure your answer makes sense).
    Mutation or sexual reproduction can introduce variation.
  29. When a population changes in genetic character over generations, what is that called?
    Microevolution
  30. What is a mass extinction?
    The extinction of many species in a geologically short period of time.
  31. How does sympatric speciation happen, i.e. how can you suddenly have a brand-new species practically overnight?
    This can happen if an extreme genetic change occurs in one or a few individuals
  32. Explain clearly how allopatric speciation occurs. Be careful to use terms correctly.


    First a population is separated into 2 populations. Overtime the populations evolve independently until they become different enough to be different species.
  33. Explain how micro evolution contributes to allopatric  speciation
    The changes overtime of each population is micro evolution. After many generations, enough differences accumulate to generate new species.
  34. After allopatric speciation has occurred, how is the original species related to the new species?
    The original species is the common ancestor of the 2 new species.
  35. List two very specific examples of abiotic components of an ecosystem’s environment.
    Temperature range or amount of rainfall or type of soil (pH, mineral content)
  36. A particular ecosystem includes coast live oak trees. laurel trees, scrub jays, red-tailed hawks, and deer mice. For each pair of statements below, check the correct one (only one is correct in each pair)

    There is more than one community in the population._____

    There is more than one population in the
    community. _____
    There is more than one community in the population._____

    There is more than one population in the community. __X___
  37. The scrub jays and red tailed hawks are members of the same community._____        The scrub jays and red tailed hawks are members of the same population._____
    The scrub jays and red tailed hawks are members of the same community.___X__   

    • The scrub jays and red tailed hawks are
    • members of the same population._____
  38. The laurel trees are part of the coast live oak trees’ population.______       
    The laurel trees are not part of the coast live oak trees’ population.____
    • The laurel trees are part of the coast live oak trees’ population.______       
    • The laurel trees are not part of the coast live oak trees’ population.__X__
  39. The coast live oaks are part of the red-tailed hawks’ biotic environment. _____

    The coast live oaks are not part of the red-tailed hawks’ biotic environment. ______
    • The coast live oaks are part of the red-tailed hawks’ biotic environment. __X___
    • The coast live oaks are not part of the red-tailed hawks’ biotic environment. ______
  40. There is one population of scrub jays in this ecosystem._____

    There are two population of scrub jays in this ecosystem._____
     

    • There is one population of scrub jays in
    • thisecosystem.___X__

    • There are two population of scrub jays in
    • this ecosystem._____
  41. Where do parasites fit in a food web?


    They are consumers and are at all trophic levels except producers.
  42. When Krogh talks about grass vs. grain for cattle, is he suggesting cows should feed at a different trophic level than they do? Is he suggesting humans feed at a different trophic level than they do? What is his point?


    No and maybe yes. Grass and grain are both plants so cows are 1st level consumers (herbivores). Cows naturally eat grasses which means leaves of many plants. Grains are the seeds of various plants (including grasses) and historically the main food for humans. But in our society we feed most of our grain to cattle and eat them, when we could eat the grains ourselves.
  43. What is the greatest upsetter (agent and activities) of the carbon cycle balance,
    and what is the main consequence?


    Fossil fuel burning produces excess carbon dioxide, causing global warming.
  44. What is the greatest upsetter (agent and
    activities) of the Nitrogen cycle balance, and what is the main consequence?


    Nitrogen fertilizers in agriculture enter bodiesof water, causing algal blooms, creating dead zones.
  45. What is coevolution and who does it?
    It is the mutual influence of 2 species on each others evolution, because each is part of the others selective environment. Interacting species do this.
  46. What does the phrase “overlapping niches” mean and what type of species interaction results from overlapping niches?


    This means that 2 species need one or more of the same resources and this results in competition(competitive interaction)
  47. A particular ecosystem
    includes coast live oaks, laurel trees, ceanothus (blue blossom), honey bees,
    finches, scrub jays, red-tailed hawks and deer mice.

    a.                  
    The red-tail hawks and
    deer mice have a preador-prey interaction. Describe the long-term effects of
    coevolution on the populations of red-tail hawks and deer mice.


    Hawks become better hunters of deer mice. Deer-mice get better at evading hawks.
  48. The finches nest in the
    oak trees without any effect on the oaks. What type of species interaction is
    that?
    Commensalism
  49. The ceanothus and honeybees have a mutualistic interaction, because the honeybees are pollinators for the ceanothus. Describe the long-term effects of coevolution on the populations of ceanothus and honeybees.
    The ceanothus flower will become more attractive to the bees and the bees will become better able to get pollen from the flowers/ increase in preference for the flowers
  50. Give a specific example of symbiotic mutualism (a mutualistic interaction that involves symbiosis) by naming the organisms involved and briefly describing their interaction.
    • Algae & fungi inLichens
    • Fungi in plant roots ofmycorrhiza
    • E.coli in human colon
  51. Why do water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other?   


    This is because the polar bond between O and H within the molecule gives a partial charge to O(-) and H (+) ; as a result  H from one water molecule is attracted to O from another water molecule, which is a hydrogen bond.
  52. Why can water absorb lots of heat without increasing much in temperature?


    When water absorbs heat,most of the energy is used to break hydrogen bonds, and little energy is left to increase temperature.
  53. a.                  
    What is it about the following molecules that tells you they are organic? C6H12O6 and C10H22?
    They contain hydrogen and Carbon
  54. Which of the molecules in a) is more hydrophilic and why?
    C6H12O6 is more hydrophilic because it contains oxygen, while C10H22 only has C+H
  55. Which type of organic molecules is more
    hydrophobic, carbohydrates or lipids?
    Lipids
  56. The diagrams below represent different arrangements of phospholipids. Explain why
    membranes must have the structure on the left and not the structure on the
    right.
    Phospholipids have hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails.The heads must face water and the tails face away from water. In order to have water outside and inside the heads must be on both faces/sides, with the tails facing each other inside. A single layer would only allow water on one side, so the inside of the cell would be oil.
  57. What function of carbohydrates is used by all cells?
    Providing energy
  58. Name the three polysaccharides (complex
    carbohydrates) made entirely of glucose.
    • starch
    • cellulose
    • glycogen
  59. Which of the three carbohydrates in b) can you digest?
    • Starch
    • Glycogen
  60. What is the main type of lipid in your diet?
    Triglycerides
  61. Do people get triglycerides from eating plants or animals?
    Both
  62. If you subtract the water, what is the main type of molecule we are made of?
    Protein
  63. What is the name for the group of molecules in a) that carry out chemical reactions for cells?
    Enzymes
  64. What is the name of the monomer (single unit) of proteins?
    Amino acid
  65. Why do you need protein in your diet, and what are complementary proteins?


    To provide us with essential amino acids, which are the ones we cannot make ourselves; complementary proteins are food sources that together (but not separately)provide all the essential amino acids.
  66. What does protein specificity mean?
    Each protein binds only a certain molecule and then carries out a particular function with it.
  67. What type of cell did the earliest organisms have?
    Prokaryotic
  68. How did the kinds of cells we are made of originate (evolve)?
    Eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic cells, by infolding of the plasma membrane to enclose the DNA in a nucleus.
  69. What are the 2 main functions of the cell/plasma membrane?


    • 1. Provide A barrier between the inside and outside.
    • 2. Control what goes in and out (transport):Receive signals
  70. What is the other general type
    of membrane that eukaryotic cells have?
    Organelle membrane
  71. What is the function of ribosomes?
    To synthesise proteins
  72. Name/describe 3 locations of
    ribosomes in at least some eukaryotic cells?
    • Free in cytosol
    • Bound membranes incytosol
    • In mitochondria
    • In chloroplasts
  73. Give two examples of specialized animal cells and their (secreted) endomembrane products.


    • Pancreas & insulin
    • Ovary and estrogen
    • Testis and testosterone
  74. In addition to secreted substances, what other product does the endomembrane system make?
    Membranes
  75. What does the plant cell central vacuole and the cell wall do together for the cell?
    Together they make trugor pressure, which gives the cell stiffness/ rigidity
  76. Explain why the following statement is true or false: Since plant cells have cell walls
    they do not have plasma membranes.
    False: Plant cells have both- cell walls and plasma membranes
  77. Describe the evolutionary origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts
    Both evolved from prokaryotic cells, that were engulfed by ancient eukaryotic cells
  78. What are two functions of the cytoskeleton?
    • Movement of the cell,parts of the cell
    • Shaping cells
    • Dividing cells
    • separating chromosomes
  79. What is the general function of animal cells’ extracellular matrix?
    To anchor cells in tissues & participate in tissue function
  80. What/ who are our two main sources of information about early earth’s environment?
    Astronomers & geologists
  81. Explain overall what is meant by the phrase “Chemical evolution” and list 2 steps in the
    process
    This is the process from simple molecules leading to first life/cells. E.g. 1.Inorganic molecules gave rise to organic molecules 2.Simple organic molecules become more complex
  82. Fill in the Blanks v\below to describe the carbon cycle. Give molecules and names of
    processes (Pay attention to the arrows).
    Glucose and Oxygen

    • Photosynthesis ↑   ↓Respiration

    • Carbon dioxide and Water
  83. What organelle in eukaryotic carries out the process on the right?
    Mitochondrion
  84. How do prokaryotes carry out the process on the left?
    They use a specialized region of the plasma membrane
  85. a.                  
    Which
    of the following parts of the electromagnetic spectrum is/are used for
    photosynthesis: gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet (UV), visible, Infrared (IR),
    microwaves, radio waves?
    Only visible
  86. Why can't the other rays
    be used for photosynthesis (your answer should describe two categories of rays
    and reasons)
    Gamma, X and UV are too high in energy and IR, micro & radio waves are too low in energy
  87. Briefly describe two key parts of photosynthesis.
    • 1. Conversion of light energy to chemical energy
    • 2. Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to organic molecule / glucose
  88. Which of the parts in c) is done by chlorophyll?
    (Part 2) Conversion of light energy to chemical energy
  89. Why does using oxygen extract so much energy from food molecules?
    Oxygen molecules have a much stronger attraction for electrons than carbon. C in food molecules contain electrons (in H). So when C gives electrons to O, energy is released
  90. Why is there so much more energy in lipids than in carbohydrates?
    There are more electrons(H atoms) per C in lipids than in Carbohydrates. So more to give oxygen, so more energy is released.
  91. If fire and respiration have the same overall reaction, how is it that cells can capture energy from food molecules and package it into ATP, rather than burning up?
    Cells break down food in many steps, releasing a small amount of energy. With each small step, small amounts of energy can be captured. Fire is a single step, releasing all the energy @ once.
  92. Approximately how long did chemical evolution begin on earth?
    4bya
  93. Approximately how long did life originate on earth?
    3.8bya
  94. Describe 2 parts, in chronological order, what happened to earth’s atmosphere before terrestrial life was able to evolve. (Include why the change was necessary)

     



    • First photosynthesis arose and oxygen gas accumulated
    • Then, excess oxygen gas was converted to ozone in the atmosphere. (The ozone provides a shield against ultraviolet radiation)
  95. Which 2 domains are part of a single kingdom (and what is the kingdom)?
    Bacteria and Archaea are part of the kingdom monera.
  96. What is the exception of the following statement? Most species in EVERY kingdom can do both types of reproduction.
    MOST animals can only do sexual reproduction
  97. Which of the 5 Kingdoms consist only of Heterotrophs?
    Animals & Fungi
  98. Explain the differences between sexual and asexual reproduction, in terms of the number of parents and the nature of their offspring.
    • Asexual: 1 parent creates identical offspring
    • Sexual reproduction: 2parents produce similar, but not identical offspring.
  99. List two important functions Monera provide in Ecosystems.
    • Some are predators in aquatic ecosystems
    • Some are decomposers
    • Some do nitrogen fixation in soil
  100. Describe a mutualistic interaction between bacteria and plants.
    Nitrogen -fixing bacteria in root nodules of legumes
  101. If you had the opportunity to have all bacteria removed from your body, would you take it? Explain your answer.
    No- E.coli provides vitamin K
  102. Explain clearly why you get sick from a pathogen the first time you are exposed to it, but why you do NOT get sick from a pathogen the second time you are exposed to it?
    The 1st time you are exposed to a pathogen you mount a primary immune response, which tales a longtime and to produce a low level of antibodies (slow and low). So the virus can get you sick before you can destroy it. The second time you make a 2ndresponse: you make high levels of antibiotics in a short time and destroy the pathogen. Before it makes you sick.
  103. If you want to avoid getting polio or hepatitis A or the flu, should you take antibiotics regularly? Explain your answer clearly and completely.


    No! These are viral diseases so, antibiotics cannot effect them, plus antibiotics don't prevent infection. Antibiotics select for the growth of antibiotics resistant bacteria;this leads to more antibiotic resistance all over. This leads to the problem of people who get a bacterial infection and antibiotics don't work.
  104. If you do not do what is suggested in a), what should you to avoid getting Polio, hepatitis A or the flu? (You do not need to explain how it works.)
    Get a vaccination
  105. What is the general name for photosynthetic Protista (the name is not autotroph)?
    algae
  106. What is the general name for most of the heterotrophic Protista?
    protazoa
  107. Both of the following interactions Involve Fungi and both are examples of mutualism. Name the other organism in the interaction.      
    Lichen__________ 
    Mycorrhizae_________
    Lichen__________  (algae)

    Mycorrhizae_________(plants)
  108. What role do saprobic fungi play in an ecosystem?
    They are decomposers
  109. What are smuts, rusts, and ergot all examples of (name the organisms involved)?
    Plant diseases caused by Fungi (predator-prey interactions between fungi and plants)
  110. Explain how b) and part of c) give farmers difficult decisions to make.


    In b) fungi make plants sick. So farmers may want to use fungicides on their crops. But in c) mychorizza are fungi helping plants. So if fungi is killed by fungicides,farmers will have to the use more fertilizers on their crops
  111. What two types of tissues are unique to and part of the character of most animals?
    Nervous and Muscle tissue
  112. What basic function, as part of what body
    system, do the two tissues provide for a typical animal?
    Locomotion/ movement as part of the skeletal system
  113. From what Kingdom, and what group within that kingdom, did the first animals evolve,
     and about how long ago?
    Protista- protozoa- 700 mya
  114. What is a colony (of cells)?
    A cooperative cluster of individuals who are each able to live alone.
  115. What process is reminiscent of (similar-seeming to) evolution of animals from colonial single celled organisms?
    Embryonic Development
  116. If increasing complexity is an evolutionary trend, why do simple animals such as sponges and jellyfish still exist?
    Simple organisms survive as long as they have a niche
  117. Is increasing complexity an evolutionary trend? Explain your answer.


    No, Increasing complexity is not a trend. Yes complexity evolves and increases over time, but this is accidental change in evolution. And if evolution were designed to seek out further and further complexity- simple organisms today, who still have niches, would not be alive today.
  118. How does a fluid (hydrostatic) skeleton work, i.e. what are its two main components and
    how do they generate movement?
    Fluid and muscles tissues are in a compartment and that compartment is squeezed by muscles to generate movement.
  119. Name two of the nine
    major animal phyla (Annelida, Arthropoda, Chordata, Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Nematoda, Platyhelminthes, Porifera) that have fluid skeletons.
    Cnidaria &  Platyhelminthes
  120. Compare two features of exoskeletons and endoskeletons.
    Exoskeletons are inside the animal, while exoskeletons are outside the animal. Endoskeletons always grow with the animal while exoskeletons may or may not grow with the animal.
  121. Name two of the nine major animal phyla that have exoskeletons and two that have
    endoskeletons.
    Exoskeletons: Molluscs,Arthropods       Endoskeletons: Porifera, Chordates, Echinoderms
  122. Which type of skeleton provides for the largest animals and why?


    Endoskeleton, because a big structure must be supported by a big frame. An exoskeleton large enough to cover a large animal would crush the animal.
  123. Which three animal phyla ONLY have aquatic species?
    Porifera, Cnidaria, and Echinoderm
  124. Which three animal phyla include aquatic species plus animals that live in wet soil (or body fluids)?
    Annelids, Platyhelminthes, and Nematodes
  125. What two main advantages do terrestrial animals have over aquatic animals?
    • 1. Plants provide food and habitat to terrestrial animals.      
    • 2. There is a lot more oxygen in the air than in water.
  126. About how long ago did animals first move to
    land, and how does the "date" relate to a)?
    About 5 mya; this relates to a) because plants had to be on land first for animals to have been able to survive on land.
  127. Are any phyla composed entirely of terrestrial animals?
    No
  128. Which Animal phylum is most successful in terms of diversity (numbers of species),and which group within the phylum has the most
    diversity?
    Arthropods- insects
  129. Describe three specific examples of species interactions involving insects.
    • Mutualism: Insect pollinator w/ a flowering plant.      
    • Predation: mosquitoes, lice and fleas feed on human blood.      
    • Predation: Herbivorous Insects (beetles and locus) eat plants

    Competition: Insects and humans for food crops
  130. Name four types (or specific examples of different types) of Arthropods.
    Centipedes, scorpions, spiders, lobsters, insects
  131. Which Animal phylum was the first to live on land?
    Arthropod
  132. How do terrestrial Arthropods solve the problems of getting water, preventing water loss, body support and fertilization?
    • Getting water: water in diet
    • Preventing water loss: Exoskeleton
    • Body support: Exoskeleton
    • Fertilization: Internal fertilization
  133. Name (and describe if necessary) the four characteristics of Chordates.
    • Notochord endoskeleton
    • Post-anal tail 
    • Dorsal nerve tube
    • Pharyngeal gill slits
  134. Describe the parts of your body that correspond to the four Chordate characteristics .
    Notochord endoskeleton- is not present today forms in embryo

    Post-anal tail - Tail bone

    Dorsal nerve tube- spinal cord

    Pharyngeal gill slits- part of the outer ear and part of the tongue
  135. Name an invertebrate Chordate. Where does it live?
    Seasquirts, in the sea
  136. Where did the first Vertebrate Chordate live?
    Aquatic Environment
  137. Where do over half of Vertebrate species live now?
    In the water
  138. Name the three aquatic Vertebrate classes.
    • 1. Agnatha- Jawless, fishlike      
    • 2. Bony fish
    • 3. Cartilaginous fish
  139. Which of the seven Vertebrate classes has the
    most diversity (greatest number of    species)?
    Bony Fish
  140. In which class of Vertebrates did lungs first evolve?
    Bony fish
  141. Do most modern species of the class --bony fish- have lungs? Explain your answer.
    No, they evolved into swim bladders.
  142. What Vertebrate class was the first to live on land?
    Amphibians
  143. What Vertebrate class was the first to become
    completely terrestrial in its adaptations?
    Reptiles
  144. How do Amphibians solve the problems of keeping water, body support and fertilization?
    • Keeping water: They weren’t able to solve this problem, so they live in a moist environment
    • Body support: Endoskeleton
    • Fertilization: Spawning & dispersal in water
  145. Why do Amphibians have thin skin that must be kept moist?


    Amphibian lungs cannot supply all the oxygen they need. So, they supplement their breathing thru their thin skin.
  146. How do Reptiles solve the problems of keeping water, body support and fertilization?
    • Keeping water: Scaly skin (keratin)   
    • Body support: Endoskeleton     
    • Fertilization: Internal fertilization
  147. Describe two ways that embryonic development differs between Amphibians and Reptiles.
    1. Amphibians embryos develop in water, reptile’s don't.

    •  2. Reptile embryos develop in
    • shelled eggs
  148. What Vertebrate classes are amniotes, and what does that mean?


    Birds, reptiles and mammals are amniotes. This means their embryo develops in a watery sac.
  149. Why do Mammalian embryos make yolk sacs even though they do not have any yolk?
    These are vestigial structures, we inherited these instructions from reptiles.
  150. List two characteristics that Reptiles, Birds
    and Mammals all share, but Amphibians lack.

    • efficient lungs
    • are amniotes
    • keratin in their skin (fur, feather and scales)
    • Internal fertilization
  151. What structure does each of the following
    classes make out of keratin: Reptiles, Birds, Mammals?
    • Reptiles: Scales
    • Birds: Feathers
    • Mammals: Fur
  152. List three characteristics that Birds and
    Mammals share, but Reptiles do not have.
    • 1. Physiologically constant body temperature      
    • 2. “Parent” their offspring before or after hatching
    • 3. Bigger more complex brains- which helps with learning, better vision, and balance
  153. List three characteristics unique to Birds, and two characteristics unique to Mammals.
    Birds: Feathers, airy bones, Efficient lungs andheart, wings

    Mammals: Fur and mammary glands to make milk forbabies
  154. About how old is the Plant kingdom, and what is different about its evolutionary history
    compared to the other four kingdoms?
    Plants are about 5 mya and are the 1st to evolve on land
  155. What two advantages do terrestrial photosynthetic organisms have over aquatic
    photosynthetic organisms?
    • More sunlight for photosynthesis      
    • More CO2 in the air.
  156. For each problem on land, tell how plants solved it and which plant divisions have thesolution.

    a) Preventing water loss
    • Waxy Cuticle: All groups of plants have it
    • [bryophytes (mosses), pteryopohytes (Ferns), Gymnosperms (conifers), and
    • Angiosperms (Flowering plants)]
  157. For each problem on land, tell how plants solved it and which plant divisions have the solution.

    b) Getting water
    Vascular system: all groups except bryophytes
  158. For each problem on land, tell how plants solved it and which plant divisions have the solution.

    c) body support
    Vascular system: all groups except bryophytes
  159. For each problem on land, tell how plants solved it and which plant divisions have the solution.

    d) Fertilization
    Pollen: Gymnosperms &Angiosperms
  160. For each problem on land, tell how plants solved it and which plant divisions have the solution.

    e) Embryonic development and dispersal of offspring
    Seeds: Gymnosperms & Angiosperms
  161. Give a common name for the most representative plants in each of the four plant groups: Angiosperms, Bryophytes, Gymnosperms,Pterophytes.
    Bryophytes (mosses)

    Pteryopohytes (Ferns)

    Gymnosperms (conifers)

    Angiosperms (Flowering plants)
  162. Put the four plant groups, in a) in order from the group related to the
    earliest plants to the most recent plants to evolve.
    #1 Bryophytes

    #2 Pteryopohytes

    #3 Gymnosperms

    #4 Angiosperms
  163. Name the two types of vessels in plant vascular systems.
    • Xylem      
    • Phleum
  164. Which type of vessel transports water and minerals, and from what part of the plant
    to what other part(s)?


    Xylem: Carries water & minerals from the soilto the roots and up to other parts (ie leaves)
  165. Which type of vessel transports sugar, and from what part of the plant to what other part(s)?
    Phleum: carries sugar from leaves to the roots
  166. What is pollination?
    Delivery of pollen to the female reproductive system
  167. What immediate advantage do plants using pollen have over plants without pollen?
    Dont need surface water for fertilization
  168. What is a significant reproductive result in
    plants using pollen compared to plants without pollen?
    Better Genetic Mixing
  169. What are the three parts of a seed?
    • Embryo
    • Protective coat
    • Food supply
  170. What function do seeds perform for plants?
    disperse offspring
  171. Compare reproduction in Gymnosperms and Angiosperms, by describing or telling each
    of the following:

    a) A single general name for the plant
    structures that are, or contain, male and female reproductive organs.
    • Gymnosperms: Cones  
    • Angiosperms: Flowers
  172. Main way pollen is delivered (mechanism of pollination).
    • Gymnosperms:  Wind   
    • Angiosperms: Animals choose specific flowers
  173. How seeds are packaged.
    Gymnosperms: seeds are not packaged    Angiosperms: fruit covered seeds
  174. Main mechanism(s) of seed dispersal.
    • Gymnosperms: Wind  
    • Angiosperms: Animals
  175. From what part of the flower, and after what event(s), does fruit form?
    Fruit forms after fertilization has taken place from the Ovary
  176. What is the main function of fruit?
    Fruits improve seed dispersal
  177. Briefly describe three mechanisms of seed dispersal provided by fruit.
    • 1. Eaten and dropped by animals
    • 2. Wind
    • 3. “Sticky” seeds stick to animals fur or feathers
  178. Which of the four groups includes the vast majority of plant species?
    Angiosperms (flowering plants)
  179. Which of the four plant groups is responsible for 99-100% of your food?
    Angiosperms
  180. Explain why your dependence on plants for food does or does not depend on whether
    you are a vegetarian (of any type) or not.
    Even if you do not eat any plants, are solely carnivorous, you depend on plants to  keep your food alive
  181. Give two examples of predator-prey interactions involving Plants: name the other
    kingdoms involved andgive specific examples.
    Fungi causing plant diseases

    Herbivorous animals eat plants
  182. Give two examples of
    mutualism involving Plants: name the other kingdoms involved and give specific
    examples.
    • Animals pollinating flowering
    • plants

    •    
    •     Michroiza- Helpful Fungi in plants

    •    
    •     Nitrogen fixing bacteria in plants
  183. What is the name of the
    monomer (single unit) of nucleic acids?
            Nucleotides
  184. What are the letter nicknames of the four bases in DNA?
    A, T, G, C
  185. What bonds hold the two strands (polynucleotide chains) of DNA together?
    Hydrogen Bonds
  186. What does complementary base pairing mean?
    Hydrogen Bonding between very specific bases:      A always pairs with T                                   C always pairs with G
  187. How does semiconservative replication of DNA work? Outline the process.
    Step 1: separates a parent chromosome into 2 daughter strands

    • Step 2: Each daughter strand is used as a
    • template to build a new strand (Which uses complementary base pairing)

    Step 3:  Each new chromosome is now half new and half old
  188. __(_gene a_)___(_gene b_)__(_gene c_)__

    If this diagram represents a chromosome, what part of its length is used for DNA synthesis
    All of it; the whole chromosome is copied

    *DNA synthesis is copying the whole chromosome*
  189. a) In what form is DNA’s information for
    synthesis of nucleic acids? (I.e., what is the source of information for DNA
    and RNA synthesis?)
    Complementary base pairing
  190. Explain how DNA has information for daily life, i.e. metabolism.
    DNA is genes. Genes specify proteins. Proteins carry out everyday functions
  191. What are the letter nicknames of the four bases in RNA?
    A,U,G,C
  192. ___(_gene a_)_(_gene b_)_(_gene c_)____

    If this diagram represents a chromosome, what part of its length is used for RNA    synthesis (transcription)?
    1 particular gene (A, B or C) at a time

     *RNA code is separated into groups of 3; RNA is made to make proteins*
  193. Write the double-stranded DNA sequence that was used to make the following RNA sequence:   
     A U G G G A U A U C C A G C G (RNA)
    T A C C C T A T A G G T C G C (DNA TEMPLATE)
  194. If you were given the amino acid sequence you
    wrote in b), explain why you could or could not give the RNA and DNA sequences
    that generated it.
    We know that there are multiple sequences of RNA or DNA sequences (synonymous codons) for each Amino acid. It is illogical to say, given an amino acid that you have a particular RNA match up, there are only possible sequences  You can only give POSSIBLE RNA/DNA sequences for each Amino Acid. But, if given a particular DNA/RNA sequence you can definitively say it is a certain Amino acid, not the other way around.
  195. What is a mutation?
    Change in DNA sequence
  196. What are the general
    causes of spontaneous mutation?
    Natural error
  197. What are the general
    causes of induced mutation?
    Environmental agents (or mutagens)
  198. What is the difference
    between frequency of spontaneous and induced mutations?
    Spontaneous mutation has low rates & induced mutations have higher rates
  199. What is a mutagen?
    Any agent the increases the rate of mutations over the spontaneous mutation rate.
  200. What are two types of mutagens?
  201.     1. Radiation
        2. Chemical
  202. What parts of the electromagnetic spectrum are mutagenic?
    The High ends
  203. Name two specific mutagens you have personally been exposed to.
    • Cigarette tars
    • X ray light
  204. What is the nature of
    cells in your body that can get spontaneous mutations?
    Dividing cells
  205. What is the nature of
    cells in your body that can get induced mutations?
    Dividing cells
  206. What effects can somatic cell mutations have on the individual who first gets the mutation?
    Can get cancer
  207. What effects can somatic cell mutations have on offspring or the species?
    • Somatic cell mutations are non-inheritable.
    • Meaning they cannot affect offspring
  208. What effects can germ cell mutations have on the individual who first gets the mutation?
    No effect
  209. What effects can germ cell mutations have on offspring or the species?
    • Miscarriage
    • Birth defects
    • Genetic Diseases
    • Childhood and young adult cancer
    • Allows variation in population
  210. If germ cells in your ovaries or testes were exposed to a mutagen, what should youworry about?
    • A mutation in your offspring:    
    • Miscarriage
    • Birth defects
    • Genetic Diseases
    • Childhood and young adult cancer
    • Allows variation in population
  211. If your lungs are exposed to a mutagen, what should you worry about?
    Lung Cancer
  212. If your whole body is exposed to a mutagen, what should you worry about
    if you are in your 20's?
    Cancer and Birth defects in future offspring

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