pharm HTN & CNS

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  1. get therapy if diastolic pressure is regularly above ___
    100 mmHg
  2. first line drugs for treating HTN
    • beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists
    • diuretics
  3. beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists and diuretics are first-line drugs for treating HTN. these next 4 help decrease BP by decreasing vasoconstrictor tone and hence peripheral resistance
    • angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors
    • calcium antagonists
    • NO releasing vasodilators
    • centrally acting drugs
  4. angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors -- effect on BP?
    decrease it by reducing vasoconstrictor tone and hence peripheral resistance
  5. calcium antagonists -- effect on BP?
    decrease it by reducing vasoconstrictor tone and hence peripheral resistance
  6. NO releasing vasodilators - effect on BP?
    decrease it by reducing vasoconstrictor tone and hence peripheral resistance
  7. centrally acting drugs - effect on BP?
    decrease it by reducing vasoconstrictor tone and hence peripheral resistance
  8. minoxidi aka rogaine - type of drug? role?
    • NO releasing vasodilator
    • decrease BP by reducing vasoconstrictor tone and hence peripheral resistance
  9. methyldopa - type of drug? role
    • centrally acting drug
    • decrease BP by reducing vasoconstrictor tone and hence peripheral resistance
  10. 4 CNS drug groups
    • opioid analgesics                                     
    • anticonvulsants
    • drugs used in Parkinsonism 
    • psychotherapeutics
  11. 4 types of psychotherapeutics
    • anxiolytics & hypnotics
    • neuroleptics (antipsychotics)
    • antidepressants
    • general anaesthetics
  12. opioid analgesics -- side effects
    they activate opioid receptors giving an analgesic effect 

    resp depression, euphoria, sedation, constipation, N/V
  13. 2 classes of opioid analgesics
    • strong
    • weak
  14. strong opioid analgesics
    • morphine
    • diamorphine (heroin)
  15. strong opioid analgesics (morphine, diamorphine/heroin) treat what?
    dull, poorly localized, usually visceral pain
  16. weak opioid analgesics treat what?
    mild to mod pain
  17. weak opioid analgesics
    • pentazocin
    • codeine
  18. pentazocin - type, administration, compare to similar drugs
    • weak opioid analgesic
    • given by iv
    • stronger than codeine, weaker than morphine
  19. codeine - type, comparison to morphine
    • opioid analgesic
    • half as potent (less addictive)
  20. 2 types of SZ w brief descriptions
    partial/focal: begin at a specific brain locus. Can be limited to clonic jerking of one extremity, or can spread and become generalized.

    generalized: no local onset. can be clonic tonic /grand mal massive jerking and rigidity, or absences / petit mal changes in consciousness lasting < 10 sec
  21. phenytoin - type of drug? mechanism?
    • anti-SZ (use for clonic tonic or partial)
    • stabilizes neuron membrane by blocking sodium channels in repetitive firing neurons
  22. barbituates / phenobarbitol - do what
    • control SZ by increasing the inhibitory effects of GABA
    • and block excitatory effects of glutamate
  23. benzodiazepines (Diazepam) - do what?
    control SZ by increasing the inhibitory effects of GABA
  24. treat tonic-clonic and partial SZ with __ and __
    Phenytoin or Carbamazepine
  25. (Phenytoin or Carbamazepine): these drugs are of similar effectiveness that
    control 80% of patients with tonic-clonic seizures, but only 40% of patients
    with partial seizures. __ can be used too, but __
    barbituate / phenobarbitone --- it's very sedative
  26. what drugs for petit mal?
    Ethosuximide (succinimides) (Valporate) (carboxylic acid)

    benzodiazepines
  27. Ethosuximide (succinimides) (Valporate)(carboxylic acid) and benzodiazepines treat what?
    petit mal SZ

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Author:
shmvii
ID:
253294
Filename:
pharm HTN & CNS
Updated:
2013-12-19 19:11:46
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pharm
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pharm
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