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How many species of microorganism reside in the oral cavity?
over 500, though only 200 have been identified
study of algae, protozoa, fungi, prions, protists, and viruses
unicellular, contains a nucleus. replicates via mitosis
uni or multicellular, no nucleus, no nuclear membrane, single circular chromosome, replicates via binary fission
basic bacteria shapes:
- cocci - balls
- bacillis - rod
- spirilli - spirals
- spirochetes - cork-screw spirals
- vibrios - comma shaped
- diplo - pairs
- strepto - chains
- tetrad - squaers
- staphylo - clumps or sheets
are viruses symmetrical or asymmetrical?
which has a more complex structure: viruses or bacteria?
gram positive stains what color?
gram negative stains what color?
"You blush pink when something negative happens!"
How many families of viruses are there?
Which is denser: gram positive or gram negative?
*therefore more peptidoglycan in the cell walls, and it retains more of the purple dye.
Binary fission has phases as follows:
- lag phase - cell grows in size, but no division
- log phase - cell replicates, multiples
- stationary phase - rate of cell growth = rate of cell death
- decline phase - nutrients are depleted resulting in cell death
at what phase of binary fission does penicillin attack bacterial cells?
during cell wall synthesis of the log phase
at what stage do viruses attach onto the cell walls?
two basic structures of fungal organisms
yeast or mold
unicellular spherical fungal structuers
multicelluilar threadlike tubes, fungal structures
how do fungi reproduce?
sexually or asexually by forming spores, by fission or budding, or by fragmentation from a parent cell (mycelium)
fungal parent cell
unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms that can cause death
how do protozoe reproduce?
asexually by budding, schizogony (multi fission), or fission (one cell splits into two)
what is the ideal human body temperature?
37 degee celcius
how do fevers happen?
bacteria release exotoxins which in turn leads macrophages to release endogenous pyrogens. pyrogens act upon the hypothalamus, causing it to reset the internal "thermostat" to create a fever
Which WBC is involved with acute inflammation?
Which WBC is involved in allergic responses secrete chemical mediators that cause bronchoconstriction
Which WBC, along with Mast Cells, play an important role in inflammatory and allergic responses when they release histamine
What type of cell gets involved when an allergen releases IgE to release histamines
antibodies produce by B cells after an antigen is introduced into the body
Immunoglobulin which lines the body surfaces to protect microorganisms from entering the body's natural cavities. It is found in tears, saliva, respiratory tract, GI tract, productive tract, and urinary tract.
Immunoglobulin present in small amounts but is a major factor on the surface of B cells. May recognize antigens
Immunoglobulin involved with immediate hypersensitivity or anaphylactic rxns. It is chiefly bound to basophils and mast cells.
Immunoglobulin also known as gamma globulin and is the most common antibody. functions to aggregrate or clump microorganisms together then opsonise them. The only immunoglobulin which can pass over the placenta from mother to baby
Most common antibody (immunoglobulin)?
Only antibody (immunoglobulin) which can cross the placenta?
Immunoglobulin which stimulates the production of IgG and is produced first in the immune response. IT binds to an antigen cell surface to lyse that cell. Larger immunoglobulin with heavier molecular weight.
Which Immunoglobulin is produced first in the immune response?
Hypersensitivity Type I
most serious type. Anaphylaxis that can be life-threatening. Invovles IgE antibody. Hives make be seen, as well as asthma
Type of hypersensitivity associated with IgE
Type I (anaphylaxis)
Type II hypersensitivity
antibody-antigen rxn which can affect organs and tissues.
IgG and IgM
Rh factor incompatibility mother-child, blood transfusion incompatibility
Type of hypersensitivity associated with IgG and IgM
Type II - antibody-antigen rxn
Type III hypersensitivity
antigen-antibody complexes accumulate
complexes which are normally removed by the liver inundate the body. build up in joints, epidermis, blood vessels, lungs, and kidneys. arthus (inflammation) rxn such as serum sickness or rheumatoid arthritis can occur.
Type IV hypersensitivity
cell-mediated. does not involve antibodies.
delayed rxn that is mediated by T cells
symptions: skin rash, eczema, ulcers, or dermatitis.
which type of hypersensitivity is related to rheumatoid arthritis?
How many types of hypersensitivity are there?
- TI: anaphylaxis. IgE
- TII: mother-baby, Rh factor incompatibility IgG IgM
- TIII: rheumatoid arthritis. accumulation complexes at joints, bc liver dysfunction. IgG
- TIV: no antibodies. T cells delayed rxn. skin rash, eczema, ulcers, or dermatitis.
Lymphocytes mature in one of two ways:
- T cells: (T lymphocytes) matured in thymus
- B Cells: (B lymphocytes) mature in bone marrow
Some B cells coat the antigen with antibodies by opsonization
which acts as a meat tenderizer on microbes and makes it easier for macrophages to ingest them
humoral immunity produces antibodies with
Cell mediated immunity does not produce antibodies with
Lymphocytes, when activated, produce glycoprotein-like cytokines termed
lymphokines (just like macrophages produce monokins)
cytokines initiate the immune response
signs of inflammation
- heat (calor)
- redness (rubor)
- swelling (tumor)
- pain (dolor)
Chicken pox is caused by
varicella zoster, which can remain in the dorsal root ganglia
where does varicella zoster lie dormant?
dorsal nerve ganglia
caused by over 200 viruses including coronavirus, rhinovirus, and adenovirus
inflammation of the conjunctiva of eye
conjunctivitis or "pink eye"
member of herpes family that often affects adults over 40, but can be transmit. to baby before birth. can remain dormant in body for a period of time. sexually transmitted. or to baby when nursing.
signs n symp: liver and spleen enlarge.
disease caused by parvovirus B19. rash 4-14 days. S&S: "slapped cheek", itchiness, red lacy rash on trunks n limbs, fever, malaise
Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth Disease)
Hepititis comes in what forms?
Which Hepititis' which occurs in stages. preicteric and icteric
A & B
Hep with no chronic effect, some necrosis of liver may result. Pt. becomes immune after infection. Oral-fecal. Preicteric n icteric, upper right quadrant pain. Convalescent phase (complete recovery).
Hep also called Dane particle. Chronic liver disease. Unprotected sex, needle-sharing, unsterile tattoo-needle use. preicteric and icteric phases. and a convalescent phase. Vaccine: Recombivax or Engerix-B
Hep with chronic liver disease. flavivirdae. Leading cause of liver transplant. Needle-sharing.
Hep which neesd Hep B to replicate. IV drug use. Vaccine: Recombivax vaccine for Hep B
Hep occurs mostly in young to middle-age adults who live in developing nations w/ poor sewage and drainage. Oral-fecal route. S&S: sim to other hep but including arthralgia, diarrhea, and hives.
Hep: acute disease. S&S limited.
caused by Epstein-Barr virus, member of herpes family, dormant infection for life. Effects lumphoid tissue, occurs primarily in adolescents and young adults.
- Influenza A: spreads fr human to animals and vis versa.
- Influenza B: human to human
- Influenza C: mild respiratory symptoms that do not result in epidemics.
German measles, can cross placenta
Measles associated with Koplik's spots (small red spots with blue-white centers) which tend to appear on buccal m ucosa.
infection of parotid glands.
Bordetella pertussis bacteria.
- catarrhal stage: bact. attach to cilia.
- Paroxysmal stage: mucous thicker n pt coughs to clear tracheobronchial tract.
Chylamydia pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumonia.
microorganisms assocaited with Mad cow disease
transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)
aka Paget's Disease
chronic, painful bone disease. destroys bone then replaces with fragile bone. occurs after age 40. unknown etiology.
Group A Beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacterial infect. which primary effects children.
(Rheumatic Fever in adults)
What causes Shingles?
Herpes zoster virus
What bacteria causes Strep throat?
Hutchinson's incisors and Mulberry molars are associated with
Syphilis which is caused by Treponema pallidum
Stages of Syphilis and signs
- Primary - Chancre (asymptom)
- Secondary - Mucous Patches (rash, fever, malaise)
- Tertiary - Gumma (body organ damage, paralysis, blindness)
Intraoral symptom of primary stages of syphilis
Intraoral symp of secondary stage of syphilis
intraoral symp. of syphilis: tertiary stage
microrganism which resides exclusively on tongue is
- S mitis
- S oralis
- S salivaris
- A. naeslundii
microflora of buccal mucosa
- Haemophilus sp
- Streptococcus sp
- S mitis
- S oralis
- S sanguis
- S vestibularis (in vestibule)
Pit and fissure microorganisms:
- S sanguinis
- A israelii
- A naeslundii
- Prevotella sp
- Stretococcus sp
- Veillonella sp
normal pH of plaque
when eating food, the pH of oral cavity is lowered too
pits and fissure caries start at what pH?
smooth surfaces caries start at what pH
root surface caries start at what pH?
Dentin caries start at what ph?
bacteria mainly associ. with root caries
A. viscosus and A. naeslundii
bacteria mostly associ. with dentin caries
Lactobacillus sp and A naeslundii
bacteria mostly assoc with smooth surface & pits and fissure caries?
Stages of biofilm colonization:
- Day 1-2: Colonizing. Aerobic. Gram +. S. mutans, S. sanguis, Streptococci
- Day 2-4: Multiplication. Aerobic. Gram +. Rods, filaments
- Day 4-7: Starts to mature. Aerobic and Anaerobic. +/-. Rods filaments, Fusobacteria
- Day 7-14: Maturation. Anaerobics. G - . Vibrios, spirochetes
- Day 14-21 Anaerobics. G - . Vibrios, spirochetes, cocci, filaments
When does biofilm mineralization occur?
bacteria associated with SARS
cytomegalovirus is associated with
herpes symptoms like mononucleosis
is streptococcus anginosus found in the acquired pellicle?