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What is the Sequence before Tx starts
- Collect the information
- Analyze and interpret the data
- Make a diagnosis
- Determine if intervention is warranted
- Make a prognosis
- Select tx targets
How are kids with phonological disorders characterized?
By impaired phonemic systems. They show difficulties using phonemes contrastively to differentiate meaning
Analysis of Phonemic Contrasts(differentiating articulation from phonological disorders)
- 1. Consistent substitutions/deletions
- 2. Inconsistent substitutions/deletions
- 3. Collapse of contrasts (child will collapse multiple speech sounds down to one)
- 4. Sound preferences ( some kids prefer one sound over another)
Its an Articulation Difficulty if...
- 1. Are the phonemic contrasts preserved?
- -Articulatory attempts
- -To determine: used minimal pair contrasts
- 2. Are the peripheral motor-based problems present?
- -Consistent error(s)
- -To determine:
- - Look for consistency of error pattern
- -If no pattern: role phonetic context could play, emerging sounds
If the production remains consistent, occurring in every tested word and position, this would suggest?
An articulation disorder
If the production is influenced by the phonetic context or the sound seems just to be emerging, this would suggest?
An articulation disorder
Primary Phonological Difficulties are:
- Inventory of Speech Sounds
- Distribution of Speech Sounds
- Syllable Shapes & Constraints
- Phonological Contrasts
- Phonological Error Patterns
The structure of the syllables within a word
Refers to the restriction or limitation established in the production of syllable shapes
what is the central goal of any phonological assessment
to understand the clients phonological system
-Describes error patterns according to a broad phonetic feature classification system
-Used to determine patterns of the sound system
-Can only describe sound substitutions but not distortions, assimilations and syllable structure changes
-Means of identifying substitutions, syllable structure and assimilatory changes that occur in the speech of clients
Phonological Process Analysis
What are the 5 classifications of the Phonological Process Analysis?
- 1. Persisting normal process
- 2. Chronological Mismatch
- 3. Systematic Sound Preference
- 4. Unusual or Idiosyncratic Process
- 5. Variable use of processes
Refers to a judgement made by a clinician based on how much of an utterance can be understood by the listener
Factors Influencing Clinical Judgement for intelligibility
- Number of errors
- Type of errors
- Frequency of phonemes in language
- Consistency of error
- Context, familiarity of listener
-The attempts to quantify the the degree of involvement.
-Uses Percentage of Consonants Correct to measure it
Child's production could be normal if:
- Errors are related to 2nd language, bilingual or dialect
- Errors are WNL for age group
- Errors are slight & don't call attention to the speaker
Child may have an articulation disorder if...
- Errors couldn't be associated with a pattern or rule
- Errors occur on only a few sounds
- Errors are associated with some underlying structural, functional or neurological problem
Child may have a phonological disorder if...
- Errors can be attributed to an underlying rule or process
- Child has multiple misarticualtions, various processes, poor , limited syllable shapes, restricted phonetic inventory
Traditional Method of Articulation
- Sounds in phonetic inventory
- Sound that are stimulable
- Sounds that frequently occur
- Sounds that are acquired early
- Sounds that have high value to child
- Ease of productions
- Production of knowledge
- Developmental norms
- Phonemic Complexity
- Maximal Features
What processes should you work on first?
- Patterns that interfere the most with intelligbilty
- Patterns that result in early sucess
- Patterns that have most negative impact on child
- Patterns that occur early in development
- Patterns that impact on greatest number of segments
- Syllable structure patterns ( ICD, FCD, WSD)
Choosing starter words
- Syllable Structure
- Phonetic Inventory
- Langauge Constraints
- Personal Factors