IR 310 Exam 2

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IR 310 Exam 2
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2010-07-01 02:22:21
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SFSU IR310 Exam
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flashcards for exam 2, at least the ones i don't immediately know
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  1. Rationality and Wartime decison making
    • Never adquit judgement because you can't change human nature
    • resion has its limits
    • rationality will not save us
  2. Powell Doctrine
    Policy articulated in the early 1990's by Gen Colin Powell when he was charimen of the Joint Cheif of Staff. Calls for the United States to prevail decisvedly in military conflicts and to have a clear exit strategy
  3. Mission Creep
    The tendancy of armed foreced in limited military deployments to take on new taskes and open-eneded commitements
  4. Intelligence vs. Information
    • Intell:
    • o Information about issues of security import to a government or institution which has been analyzed and evaluated in ways to assist policy maker in making decisions
    • Info: facts/ data
  5. Intelligence cyle
    • The five-stage intelligence process
    • 1) planning and direction
    • 2) colelction
    • 3) processing
    • 4) analysis
    • 5) dessmination to policy makers
  6. Human Intelligence
    (HUMINT) Information gained by intelligence agencies from foreign informants working undercover
  7. Espionage
    • Part of the collection disipline;
    • spying on your country for another;
    • illigal in every country
  8. President's Daily Brief
    last step of cylce, disceimating intelligence to policy makers
  9. Nuclear shadow
    nuclear pranoida so that no one will distroy each other, binkism

    see pg 311 in book
  10. El Salvador
    Iran-Contra scandal

    • 2 parties
    • • left wing FMLN
    •  rebel milta
    •  reformist (econ soc)
    • • right wing military-led gov’t
    •  authorities but conservative
    •  corrupt
    •  harsh pw
    • • political violence against civilians
    • o cold war; forced to take sides
    • o Reagan’s push to action > Iran-Contra scandal
  11. Germany
    Trade

    • • Federal republic
    • • Export oriented
    • • Largest EU budget
    • • GDP 3653 bill, 5.86% world
    • • Christian factionso
    • History
    • • WWI - Not allies
    • • WWII - Not allies
    •  Split up FR, US, SU
    •  West half more prosperous
    • • Cold war - close ties, all 1989 w/ fall of wall
    • • Opposed Iraq
    • • Chancellor Merkel elected 07
    • o Trade relations
    • • Export-import
    •  Exports most of goods to US
    •  Manufacturing
    •  Motor, chem.
    •  electrical
    •  Import from us
    • • Trade surplus
    •  Surplus in 2009 187 mill
    •  08 266 mill
    •  facilities
    • • statistics
    •  exports to us fell 27%
    •  imports to Germany dropped 21%
    • • conclusion
    •  largest econ EU, 2nd in pop
    •  5th largest trade importer to us
    •  mater b/c impact on EU but also world
    •  Euro crisis
  12. Hondurs
    Aid

    • o intro
    • • central America
    • • 8mill ppl
    • • catholic
    • • iron, zinc
    • • gold copper
    • • exports: coffee, shrimp, bananas
    • • imports: fabric, yarn, metalo History
    • • Spanish colony
    • • allied nations one of first
    • • football war; tensions with el Salvador
    • • hurricane Mitch – 50 years back
    • o us relations
    • • primary trading partner
    • • one of first to sign icc with US
    • • us CAFTA
    • • largest investor
    • o econ/ development
    • • largest donor
    • • military aids 1980
    • • 1998-2001 hurricane disaster relief
    • • 38 bill donation budget
    • o conclusion
    • • relies heavily on a few resources
    • • direct econ tie with US
    • • one of the poorest in the Americas
  13. Colombia
    War on Drugs

    • o intro
    • • pop 42,000,000
    • • n. south America
    • o Demographics
    • • diverse- euro, Indian, African, catholic
    • o econ
    • • Oil, cloth, agg, coffee
    • • poverty: high GDP despite
    •  12% unemployed
    •  civil war
    •  drugs
    • o plan Colombia
    • • proposed by prez of Colombia to Clinton
    • • funding to stop cocaine trafficking
    • • fight FARC
    • • evolved to “war on drugs” ==>”war on Terror” ⇑SS
    • players:
    •  Pastranda
    •  clinton
    •  FARC
    •  rebel military
    • • cocaine
    •  43% of world’s coc
    •  create crime
    • • US strategy
    •  Fumigation of plants
    • • American pilots
    • • glyphosate
    • • killed EVERYTHING, even the good crops
    • • video
    • • rise in production
    • • opposing force to FARC
    •  paramilitary
    •  police
    •  US private contractors
    • • FARC
    •  Originated in Colombia but spread to neighbors
    •  "robin hood”
    •  kids
    •  operations:
    • • military
    • • child soldiers
    • • ransom
    • • terrorist
    •  over half a million $ aid
    • • not working
    • • Paramilitary
    •  Not gov’t
    •  fight FARC
    •  HR violations
    •  controversy: we supply them
    • o no longer primary produces; FARC spread out
    • • DIDN’T WORK
  14. India
    Nucklear Proliferation

    • o background
    • • 1.18 bill
    • • 40 languages
    • • Hindu
    • • federal constitutional republic
    • • 11th largest econ
    • • one of fastest growing
    • • 2oth cen struggle – Gandhi
    • • British colony
    •  independent ==>creation of Pakistan
    • • democratic republic
    • o US relations
    • • Nehru
    •  Non-alignment movement ‘70s
    •  wanted out of cold war
    •  socialist ∴no relations
    •  w/ fall of SU became associated w/ US
    •  alliances during bush & Clinton admits
    • • nuke
    •  1974 test, w/o notice – illegal
    •  "peaceful” claim
    •  sanctions for tests
    •  Clinton talks, in order to advance non-proliferation
    •  civil nuclear cooperation
    •  monitoring: allowed Delhi to arrange when experiments would be
    • • actors
    •  approval by congress 3 years
    •  bush signed Hyde 06
    •  Indian parliament (but many not pronounce)
    •  felt it was a fall into a trap of the US (can’t test anymore)
    •  did not sign the treaties banning tests
    •  international atomic energy agreement
    •  nuclear suppliers group
    •  unclear civil agreement
    • • why?
    •  Common values
    •  democracy
    •  security
    •  geography - strategy close to china
    •  econ: interdependence, compition, investment, energy demand
    •  25% of thorium, 1% of uranium
    • • outcomes
    •  h. Clinton & Obama stated the India is a key player in counter-terrorism, intelligence, nuke security
  15. John Ashcroft
    Patriot Act

    • • born may 9 ‘42
    • • Christian
    • • Yale
    • • u Chicago law
    • • poltical carrier
    • o congress in Missouri (lost)
    • o ass attn general of Missouri
    • o attn gen
    • o governor
    • o chairman of nat'l governors association
    • o US senate
    • o lost seat to Mel Carahan
    • o US attn general 58-42 most dem against
    • • pro seg
    • • abortion
    • • US attorney general
    • o Weed
    • o suicide
    • o affirmative action
    • o public info
    • o anti-trust lax
    • o arms
    • • post 9/11
    • o his stances dropped in importance
    • o determination to stop future terrorist attacks
    • o new fed law style
    • • Patriot act
    • o search
    • o detain
    • o roundup of innocent
    • • profiling
    • • no evidence
    • • abused
    • • detained in defiantly
    • • not changed
    • o signed into law oct 01
    • o continued in terrorism
  16. Indonesia
    Deforestation

    • o General
    • • Repb of indo
    • • 2mill square miles
    • • 17,000 islands (6,000 inhabited)
    • • 4th most populated country
    • • Jakarta capital
    •  ny state
    • o Econ
    • • Gdp 519bill, 4,000 per cap
    • • 14% agg, timber, rubber, rice, corn…
    • • oil gas, baucite, silver, tin
    • • 3.5% growth
    • o trade
    • • export
    •  Japan, us, Singapore
    •  oil gas
    •  palm oil
    •  coal
    • • import
    •  Singapore, china
    •  oil
    • o illegal logging & US lacey act
    • • 3rd largest rainforest in the world, endangered
    • • 40% deforestation
    • • 50 acres per min
    • • not "accurately: documents
    • • illegal logging 80% of nations green house gas
    • • 1990-'95 28 mill
    • • 2007 73-88% illegal
    • o US lacy acts
    • • What is the act?
    •  Required US companies to ensure that all timber and other plant products for import into the US are legally harvested
    •  Purpose
    • • Control rate
    • • save Indonesia
    • • save orangutan
    •  April 5th 06 US and Indonesia agreed to fight together
    • • Passed in may 08
    • • Major players
    •  USAID
    •  Greenpeace
    •  UNEP
    •  Indonesia minstery of forestry
    •  congress
    •  euro, Japan, Russ
    • • relations
  17. Isreal
    Olympic Massacre

    • • Independence may 14th 1949, Britten occupation of Palestine
    • • strong Arab resistance to Jewish state
    • o ∴multiple wars
    • • war immediately fallowed the decollation of Israel as a state
    • • 6 day war 1967 Israel, Egypt, Syria and Jordan
    • • Yom Kippur war 1973
    • • immigration
    • • Case - Olympic Massacre
    • • pro-Palestine terrorist group took hostages at 1972 Olympic games in Munich
    • • games meant to be fun, low security
    • • ill equipped
    • • wrestlers and weight lifters
    • • couldn’t fulfill demands (prisoners release)
    • • improv
    • • 12 dead, one German policeman and 11 Israel athletes
    • • aftermath:
    •  revenge “operation wrath”
    •  Mossad behind the scenes
    •  prime minister committee
    • o quotes
    • • Mossad’s dep – frighten Arabs
    • • Simon reeve – organized
    • • panel – best method (9/11 resonates)
    • o psychological warfare
    • • Obits of living ppl
    • • detailed info to junior offices
    • • letter bombs
    • o aftermath
    • • 3 survived hostage, arrested
    • • ali hassan salameh, "the red prince” (Finland?)
    •  disaster, plausible deniability
    • • conclusion
    • o picked on
    • o short history of the state has been very turbulent
    • o all required to join military
    • o slow moving bureaucratic v. quick covert
    • o plausible deniability
    • o comparable to 9/11, should we have taken similar actions? How many Americans have died in Iraq & Afghanistan?
  18. Robert Zoelleck
    German Reunification

    • o bio
    • • born ‘53
    • • German
    • • history major
    • • Harvard law
    • • Hong Kong fellowship
    • • MPP Kennedy school of government
    • • “seize the opportunity”
    • • Gov't service
    •  judicial clerkship
    •  dept of treasury
    •  white house chief of staff and assistant to the president (Clinton) 1992
    •  bush's personal rep at G7
    • • carrier
    •  German reunification
    •  VP Fannie mae
    •  Goldman sachs
    •  us naval academy teacher
    •  us trade rep ambassador
    •  dep sec of state 05-06
    •  china point guy
    • • speech, “responsible stake holder”
    • • WTO
    •  11th prez of world bank
    • • advancing the sate of the art development
    • o development issues – environmental, microfinance, health and education
    • o customize to a countries need
    • o private escort aim...
    • • cold war
    • o German reunification
    • o four negotiations
    • o remember German parents
    • • US trade rep
    •  Doha development agenda
    •  enterprise for ASEAN initiative
    •  free trade agreements
    • • open market
    • o Sept 11
    • o tree trade fight poverty & hopelessness and can breed terrorism
  19. Libya
    Export bans

    • o Country description
    • • Great socialist ppl’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
    • • pup – 6,310,434
    • • gdp 14,900
    • • cap: Tripoli
    • • Sunni Muslim
    • o history
    • • 1960-79
    •  coup angst king idris
    •  revolution command council
    •  "freedom, socialism and unity"
    •  Qadhafi's foreign policy goals
    • • Arab unity
    • • isratine (Palestine support)
    • • advancement of Islam
    • • rejects soviet communism and American capitalism (*during cold war)
    • • ‘80’s
    •  ’81 – closes embassy in DC
    •  '82 bans imports of Libyan crude oil and certain exports (support for sundan war)
    •  '85 all ex-import bank financing prohibited
    •  '86 total ban on direct import and export trade, commercial contracts, and ravel-related activities
    •  '86 - Berlin discotheque bombing
    • • Lybian gov’t assets frozen
    • • operation el dorado canyon
    • • diplomatic and economic pressure
    •  certain stations removed
    •  full diplomatic reactions restored on may 15th 2006
    •  removed from list of state sponsor of terrorism in june '06
    •  sour b/c of no mutual consent, not complying/ no communication
  20. North Korea
    Nuclear Proliferation

    • • general
    • o economy – central planning
    • o industries - military products, machine, electric, textiles, food processing, tourism, limestone, no paper
    • • got WTO food
    • o agg – rice, corn, potatoes, soybeans, pulses, cattle, pigs, pork, eggs
    • o father-son dictator
    • • historical
    • o Kim Iil-Sung – n. kora’s founder/ father
    • o attacked so. kora june 25, 1950 and armstcie was signed on july 27, 1953
    • o nuck
    • • 1962 – stated
    • • ’85 US found them
    • • '93 - UN security council passes resolution
    • • '95 - framework b/t US & NK in Geneva
    • • ’03 – declaration of withdraw from treaty
    • • '05 - produced 12-15 weapons
    • • '06 - UN sec council urged NK to abandon
    • • '08- bush removed NK from list of terrorist supporters
    • • '10 - sill developing
    • • Who’s involved
    • o Domestic: Barak extended sanctions
    • o Int’l: UNsec coun WFP
    • o why care?
    • • Japan & s. Koran econ growth
    • • would need to defend " b/c of '53 US –ROK mutual defense treaty
    • • conclusion
    • o US approach
    • • No action
    • • long term econ embargo
    • • result
    •  econ sanctions have had minimal impact on political change, prevention of nuclear proliferation, or improvement of human rights
  21. Egypt
    oil embargo/ camp david

    • o Middle east
    • o overview
    • • 1914 – British protectorate
    • • 1922: independence
    • • capital Cairo
    • • pop 83 mill
    • • religion: Islam, Christianity
    • • Lang: Arabic
    • • GNI/ captain: 1,800 USD
    • • resources, petroleum & n. gas
    • o policy ideology
    • • goal since 1945: be the Hegemon of the global capitalist econ sys
    • • replace the US & France as Hegemon
    • • control of middle east - arbiter of
    • o Historical context
    • • Egypt
    •  1948 Israel
    •  Nasser’s revolutionary regime
    • • 1956 Suez canal
    • • UAR
    • • proxy wars- Lebanon
    •  1970 Anwar al Sadat
    • • Israel war
    • • 1972 cuts soviet aid
    • • US
    •  Eisenhower Doctrine (date?)
    • • protect any middle eastern state from the threat of communist
    •  1977 Jimmy carter's humanitarian approach • diff from all prior
    • o Camp David Accords
    • • 1973 – Arab oil embargo
    •  tension among American inters in ME
    •  commitment to Isreal v. flow of oil to the worst
    • • Egypt – shift away from USSR
    • • Opp for negotiation
    •  interest fro all parties
    • • 1978 camp accords (add from audio)
    • o relevance
    • • Egypt as regional peace broker in middle east
    • • showcases American geopolitical strategy
    • • established Egyptian ties to US
    • • foreign aid
    • • hegemony in the middle east
    • o conclusion
    • • “ the camp David process promised a substantial impact on superpower interest, the chances of war and regional politics in the middle est.”
  22. Pakistan
    Kashmire

    • o boarders china, Afghanistan, India
    • o pop over 169,886,000
    • o Islamic republic 1947
    • o president asif ali zardari
    • • lists history of leaders
    • o capital Islamabad
    • o Kashmir conflict
    • • 1947-48 india/ Pakistan
    • • Pashtuns invasion
    • • Indian military
    • • Karachi argument
    •  established UN, ceasefire line
    •  1972 line of control
    • • Current protests
    •  8ppl killed yesterday
    •  feel they have been a peaceful region, its other that fight over it
    • • Kashmir wants Independence
    • o Two nation theory
    • • Muslim/ Hindu
    • • inner struggle
    • • Kashmir today
    • • 1999 US diplomatic intervention
    •  line was violated, Taliban funded
    • o Current Taliban
    • • Kashmir region unstable
    • • harbor terrorists
    • • fight for Islam
    • • inner struggle w/ US/India
    • o The Threat
    • • Refuses to sign Nuclear NP treaty
    •  seem sighted recently
    • • politically unstable
    • • afghan influence
    •  working together to harbor terrorists
    • • War on terror worsens from US action
    •  not working b/c pulling money from all sides
    • • India
    • o Aid in Counterterrorism
    • • Predator drone
    •  fueling fire for Taliban
    • • Pakistani gov't denial
    • • Pakistani civilians
    • • Taliban’s reactions
    • o global considerations
    • • china-Pakistan nuclear proliferation
    • • greatest threat Taliban
    • • refusal to sign realty
    • • Afghanistan
    • o 5.2 billion budget
    • o location of bin laden
  23. Globalization
    The melding of national and regional markets into a single world market with limited political barriers of commerce. ( Consolidate world markets)
  24. Panama
    Panama Canal

    • o background
    • • 30,193 gq miles
    • • pop, 3,360,474
    • • Spanish
    • • English also native
    • • land brige b/t n & so
    • o case study: panama canal
    • • extends across the Isthmus of Panama
    • • short-cut though Atlantic to Pacific oceans
    • • cuts though one of the narrowest points b/t the two oceans
    • • replaces cape horn rout
    • • not at seal level canal
    • • 50 miles long
    • • six pairs of locks
    • o History
    • • 1699 Darien scheme
    •  kingdom of Scotland
    •  overland trade rout
    •  1855 panama railway
    •  large determined canal rout
    •  owned by kanas city southern railway and panama holding, LLC
    •  ...
    • • US involvement begins
    •  1899 isthmian canal commission
    •  1902 spooner bill passed
    •  1903 hay-harran treaty with Columbia
    •  1903 panama archived independence
    •  ? stamp
    •  1904 constitution
    •  1914 open
    •  1921 paid $25 million to Columbia
    •  1977 carter signed Torrijos-Carter treaty
    •  1978 returned canal zone to panama (5 miles around)
    •  1999 formally regained control of the canal
    • o Current status
    • • 2006 expansion project (finished 2014)
    •  5.25 billion
    •  Spanish company won bid
    •  7000 jobs
    •  6 new locks
    •  lake gatun raisd 1.5 meters
    •  will use tug boats (when will it be done?)
  25. Dilemas of Trade
    Who benefits and who doesn't. Self-interest gets in the way. Balance of Liberal and conservatives. Example agriculture(subsidies)
  26. Two-level game
    • • Global
    • • Domestic
    • o Labor unions
    • o Mentality of minimal treatment of laborers
    • o US advertizing
  27. Doha Round
    World Bank annual meeting discuss course of global economy
  28. LIberlization vs. Protectionism
    global governance examples; IMF, World Bank, WTO, Gatt. Mentality of minimal treatment to workers - A trade policy promotes interests of U.S. producers
  29. Types of Protectionism
    increasing subsidies and raising tariffs
  30. Types of liberlization
    uliminating subsidies and lowering tariffs
  31. fast track
    congress gives a power to the president to negotiate to free trade agreements and thereafter congress will not amend.
  32. Sanctions and embargos
    meant to put pressure on a nation to stop something

    an ineffective means of coersion
  33. Labor Unions
    Part of the domestic side of the two-level game. regulate pay/work conditions to keep order for employees.
  34. NAFTA
    North american trade agreement btwn Canada, Mexico, and U.S.
  35. WTO
    World Trade Organization; body to regulate trade and mediate trade disputes
  36. IMF
    International monetary funds; manages currency exchanges & provide relief to currency crisis- pay down debts
  37. World Bank
    lend money to member states to rebuild their industries.
  38. Trade Deficit
    Import more then export
  39. Millennium Challenge Account
    an intiateive of bill clintion to help poor countries to modenize
  40. Foreign Aid
    • Economic resources provided by affluent governments to developing countries on terms unavailable to the recipients through commercial markets. May take the form of development or security assistance
  41. Disaster Relief
    • Monies or services made available to individuals or communities that have experienced losses due to disasters
  42. Role of NGO
    • Nongovernmental Organizations whose major role is pushing for sustainable development. (red cross, USAID, Green Peace) they don’t receive fund from government. Usually humanitarian relief
  43. Non-tariff barriers
    subsadies
  44. Partisan trade politces
    conflicts b/t conservative repbulicans (less retrictions w/ partners but more with non-partners) vs. liberal democrats (opp)

    • compition b/t the two dominate politcal parties in congress, unified government vs. devied government
    • divied govenment makes it more difficut; more foregin policy views are opposed
  45. Textiles
    conflict of interst, we want other countries to thrive so long as we don't hurt our consistiuence. ex: afgan textiles v. textiles from verginia
  46. Congress and Trade
    congress can regulate foreign trade and because of that it can raise tarriffs or create subsides.

    repersent their own small consitiuencys
  47. China and US trade politics
    accused of trade manipulation; trade deficit
  48. Transnational Problems
    Humanitarian issues, global commons
  49. Global commons
    An area used by all but owen by no one; ocean, atmosphere, ect.
  50. Rio summit
    1992 first enveromental conference
  51. Kyoto Protocol
    • Agreement linked to United Nations Framework Convention on climate change
    • Sets targets for 37 industrialized countries and European community for reducing greenhouse emission
    • Emission Trading-allows countries that have emission units to spare can be sold to countries that are over targets
    • Clean Development-allows country with an emission reduction or limitation commitment to implement a reduction project in developing countries
    • Joint Implementation-allows country with an emission reduction or limitation commitment to earn reduction units from a removal project
  52. ICC
    • Rome Statute
    • 1) genocide
    • 2) crimes agaist humanity
    • 3) war crimes
    • 4) unlawful acts of foregin agression
    • US never signed
  53. Immigration debate
    competing bussness interst, bussness wants it because they can get around labor laws

    however, americans want the jobs
  54. UN
    World government
  55. Security Council
    world police focrce, 5 powers you need to convence
  56. NATO
    Free trade, liberlization
  57. Multilateral Institutions and the US foreign policy
    • set up by america to give ppl an equal voice
    • backfire: drained american power
  58. Tragedy of the Commons
    no one takes care of the shared resources
  59. Reasons for lack of cooperation in global issues
    • lack of accountablity
    • fear of cheating
    • lack of tranparency/ oversight
    • free-riding
    • short v. long term gains
  60. responsiblity and US foreign policy
    we should do what we say what were going to do
  61. Genocide and US foriegn policy
    America has always turened a blined eye to it

    poop analogy (had to be there)
  62. Moral Responciblity
    Do we go in and scarifice selves? Bother's keeper? or let other handle it?
  63. US values and human rights
    anything that is human right/ civil rights are universal values, we assume everyone wants
  64. Intervention vs. non-intervention
    isolationsim; black hawk down

    fear of another embarassment and getting stuck in anaother countrie's civil war
  65. Rawanda case
    • The clintion advisors wanted to sheild him from the conflict
    • wanted to avoid another somilia
    • richerd clark major player
    • didn't want to act/ no faith in UN peacekeepers
    • UN did not act; policy of no arms
  66. US-China currency/ deficit
    • Currency is being manipulated
    • Trade imbalance is hurting the economypublic perception of a rivalry is affecting economic progress and cooperation among the two states
    • The Problem:The health of the global economy is at risk of major disruptionThe

    • Major Players:
    • The global economy
    • China, United States, Europe, WTO, IMF
    • The Issues:
    • Currency Manipulation
    • Trade Imbalance
    • China's quest for rapid economic growth
    • Inequality between rich and poor in China
    • Currency Manipulation: 08 China pegs the Yuan at 6.83 to the dollar
    • Over the last two years China has been facing criticism regarding their currency inflexibility
    • What is causing the trade imbalance: -Different Cultures: America spends, China Saves- Yuan-Subsidies
  67. Iran Sanctions
    • Intro:
    • On June 9th the UN voted to strengthen sanctions
    • - The resolution restates the Security Council's longstanding demand that Iran suspends its enrichment program
    • -The The resolution imposes a series of new sanctions that will increase the cost to Iran's leaders of their current irresponsible policies
    • History:
    • President Clinton banned U.S. trade with and investment in Iran in 1996
    • -Since 06 the UN secuirty council has imposed sanctions
    • Who is Involved:
    • Iran : Uranium = Weapons Grade
    • Israel : Transparency or else
    • U.S.A. : Rogue + Crazy = No Nuke
    • Turkey : C’mon “Realpolitik”Brazil : Solution
    • China : “To be rich is glorious.”
    • Russia : “Did not agree”

    • Current Status: - US Congress is working on a bill that would target non
    • -US firms that sell goods, services or know-how to Iran
    • - corporations and banks must declare any business done with Iran through subsidiaries or holding companies
    • - EU are constructing their own sanctions similar to the US-Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said the sanctions should be thrown into the trash bin like a used tissue."What will happen if Iran ignores the sanctions?
    • -Military Action: Who would attack? Would it be a success?
    • -Accept Nuclear Iran.
    • Why is Israel allowed Nuclear weapons and Iran not?-Israelis use nuclear weapons as a deterrent
    • -Iran would use nuclear weapons as an offensive weapon
    • -We like Israel, We don't like iran
  68. Cuba embargo
    communist revolution in the 50's

    • o embargoo
    • why?
    • • expropriation of property
    • • anti-comm
    • o history
    • • listen
    • o whats at stake?
    • • Business
    • • cuba’s econ
    • • HR prob in cuba
    • • legacy
    • • symbolic failue of values
    • o actors
    • • agenda shift
    •  Dwight Eisenhower - embargo
    •  jfk – forging assistance act; spends all trade; 3447
    •  bush sr – tores-chele act; peaceful transition to democracy; some traval
    •  Clinton – cuba libtery & dem solidary act (helms-burtan, no busness trade , int’l sanctions
    •  bush jr
    •  Obama – lifted traval restictions
    • • congress
    • • int’l actors
    •  Venezuela – hugo chaves
    •  USSR – bay of pigs/ Khrushchev – temp suger
    •  post USSR – putin – better trade
    •  iran – ahmadinejad – trade, euro credit line
    •  cont’
    • o current status
    • • limite expansion of US interests
    • • obama straies to break the legacy
    • • allow traval
    • • cuba under raul castro (cell phone rule change)
    • • deep water drilling (risk)
    • o contending vies
    • • us
    •  is deocratization is freedom
    •  lift the embargo
    •  humaitarian aid
    •  communist threat
    •  continuing a legacy
    • • cuba
    •  communism is equalty, equaltity is freedom
    •  altern resources, anti-capilist
    •  high litercay rate, life expectancy rate
    •  capitalist devil
    •  losing a legacy
    • • coclusion
    •  long draw stand off
    •  competing leacis
    •  oil drilling to better relations?
    •  cuban-americas as agents of change
    •  gains v. losses
    •  "fixing cuba"
  69. Climate Change
    • What is at stake?
    • -This is causing the polar ice caps and glaciers to melt, which will not only cause global flooding but the global ocean currents to stop
    • -If the currents stop, the warm water of Europe's coast will disappear too
    • -Life of phytoplankton. they die when the ocean is too acidic.
    • History of what has been done to better the current situation
    • -earth day raised awareness
    • Current Developments:
    • -Kyoto Protocal
    • -Agreement linked to United Nations Framework convention on climate change
    • -Sets targets for 37 industrialized coutnries and european community for reducinggreenhouse emission
    • -Emission trading-allows countries that have emission units to spare can be sold to countries that are over targets
    • -Clean development -allows coutnry with an emission reduction or limitation commitment to implement a reduction projectin developing countries.

    • Current Developments:
    • -Joint implementation-allows country with an emission reduction or limitation commitment to earn reduction unitsfrom a removal project.
    • -Copenhagen:
    • Confrence that is a continuation of Kyoto.
    • 3 main issues had to be discussed.
    • a treaty was expected,but an accord resulted from it.

    • After Copehnhagen and why it failed:
    • -5/192 countries opposed the Copenhagen accord never passed
    • -unrealistic conference and unattainable goals (vague guidelines rather than conform to rules)
    • -Did not produce leagally bindings accords
    • -Not enough funding for the billions of people in developing countries.

    • Who's fighting the facts:
    • -47 congress members voted to remove Obama's green house gas rules
    • -Out of 928 scientific articles, zero thought it was not a serious problem
    • -In 2009, the oil companies spent $168.4 million on lobbyists

    Conclusion:If we all wait for our neighbor to change first, nothing will ever change. Blame and animosity will lead to nothing productive. Moreover, as human beings and diplomats in professional life, it is important that consensus is reached by developed, growing, and developing countries We all share one world; consequently, we are all involved and need to work together for the sake of future generations.
  70. Hati and Disaster Relief
    • Republic of Haiti:
    • Rebuilding and Foreign Aid
    • -Government:
    • President: Rene Preval
    • Prime Minister: Jean Belle-rive
    • -Main industries: sugar refining, textiles, cement, flour milling

    • Who's involved:
    • -United States
    • -United Nations
    • -IGO'S
    • -Private
    • -Cuba

    • Current Aid Inflow-Negatives:
    • -Only $100,000 fulfilled
    • -Mixed objectives for structural rebuild: President Rene Preval, Prime Minister Jean-Max Bellerive
    • -Democracy Jeopardized

    • What is at stake:
    • -Sovereignty
    • -Economic liberalization
    • -Decentralization
    • -Food sovereignty and security
    • - International public opinion
    • -Short/long term reconstruction
    • -Democracy
    • -"Practical Capacity" to establish a free, healthy, and stable society.
  71. Darfur Genocide
    • • Darfur
    • o part of Sudan
    • o basics
    • • pop: 41,980,182 (july 10)
    • • about the size of Texas; variety of landscapes
    • • 3 parties under CPA
    • o What is Genocide?
    • • Any of the fallow acts committed with intent to destroy, whole or in part, a national, ethical, racial or religious group, as such; killing members of the group, causing serious bodily or mental harm, deity inflicting on the conditions of life, calculated to bring about its physical destructions in whole or part, imposing measures to prevent birth
    • • 8 stages
    • 1. classification
    • 2. symbolization
    • 3. dehumanization
    • 4. organization
    • 5. polarization
    • 6. preparation
    • 7. extermination
    • 8. denial
    • o timeline
    • • 1956 Sudan gains independence
    •  several coups
    • • 62 civil war b/t Christian and Muslims (what side what?)
    • • 72 south self governance
    • • 78 oil found in south
    • • 83 civil war (Islamic law + oil)
    • • 95 sanctions
    • • 99 oil export to china
    • • 01 sanction removal, but back on in 2 weeks
    • • 02 gov't & SPLM protocol to end civil war
    • • 03 rebel groups emerge to claim oil wealth
    •  attack gov’t
    •  attack civilians (Black v. Arab)
    • • 04 thousands of killings, displacement
    •  april – UNSC does not rais issue
    •  july - 1556, maybe sanctions....
    •  sept - 1564, will have sanctions, abstain
    • • 05 peace agreement b/t n & s, UN troops only to enforce that part
    •  9 resolutions, but no help
    • • 06 UNSC resolution to send in African troops, BUT must agree to it
    •  violence leeks into Chad, severing relations
    •  july, resolution some troops
    • • 08 was a genocide, must be punished
    •  march, order to turn over prez to ICC
    • o Players
    • • Gov’t
    •  Khartoum: led by president Omar Al Bashir
    •  Janjaweed: Arab militia that coordinates with government
    •  Sudanese liberation movement (SLM. SPLM) and the Sudanese justice…
    • • International
    •  US: first to call it genocide
    •  China: wants oil
    •  Russia: capitalist, weapons supplier
    •  Chad: spill over problems
    •  Qata & Egypt: inditement ignored
    • • Organizations
    •  UN: gross humanitarian crisis, sanctions
    •  ICC: conclusive reports = indictments
    •  EUFOR: euro peacekeeping
    •  AU

    • o What is at stake
    • • US image
    • • US Security – Sudanese gov’t helps the CIA
    • • UN/ International community image
    • • international law violator - failure to distinguish b/t civilians and military objectives
    • • diplomatic relations
    • • human cost
    • o points of contention
    • • khatum blices problem blown out of proportion – icc did not find enough evidence to prosecute for genocide
    • • china's depended on Sudanese oil
    • • interdependent b/t US and China
  72. Fog of War
  73. Carbon Markets
  74. Haiti Eathquake
  75. Ghosts of Rwanda

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