ch 9

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  1. Using the approach the client is instructed how to position the articulations in such a way that a speech sound, considered to be, WML, is produced.
    Phonetic/Traditional/Motor Approach
  2. T/F: It's sometime easier to work on /z/ first b/c of voicing features
  3. Tx for Misarticualtions of /s/ and /z/
    • [t] to [s]
    • [sh] to [s]
    • [f] to [s]
    • [i] to [s]
  4. Tx Misarticulations of [ʃ] and [ʒ]
    • -/s/ to /ʃ/
    • -/t/ to /ʃ/
    • -/tʃ/ to /ʃ/
  5. Tx Misarticulations of [l]
    • -/d/ to /l/
    • -/n/ to /l/
    • -/i/ to /l/
    • -/a/ to /l/
  6. Tx for Misarticulation of [k] and [g]
    -Most common substitution is [t] for [k] and [d] for [g]

    • -/ŋ/ to /g/
    • -/u/ to /k/
  7. Tx for Misarticulations of [r]
    • -/d/ to /r/
    • -/ɝ/ or /ɚ/ to /r/
  8. Tx for misarticulating of [θ] and [ð]
    • -Among the latest sounds to develop
    • -/t/ to /θ/
    • -/f/ to /θ/
    • -/s/ to /θ/
    • -high front vowels are best coarticulatory conditions
  9. Tx for misarticulations of [f] and [v]
    • -[f] is usually mastered  by 3
    • -[v] is usually mastered by 8
    • -Put front teeth on lower lip
    • -[p] to [f] , [b] to [v]
  10. Tx for affricate problems
    • -/t/ to /tʃ/
    • -/ʃ/ to /tʃ/
    • -/s/ to /tʃ/
    • -front vowels offer more support
  11. Tx for voicing problems
    • -Tactile feedback method: using vibratory sensation of voiced sounds
    • -Auditory enhancement method: client’s hands are cupped and placed over ears
    • -Whispering method: have the child whisper the sound; only until the child understands the
    • distinction between voiced and voiceless
    • -Singing Method: “sing” the voiceless
    • consonant: voiceless consonant should become voiced
    • -Developing Voiced Stop Production:
    • voiced stops are developed from nasals. During the nasal production, the
    • nostrils are pinched.
  12. Tx for consonant cluster problems
    • -Pausing
    • -Using compound words
    • -Use of epenthesis "schwa"
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ch 9
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