Unit 7A- Memory Vocab.txt

Card Set Information

Unit 7A- Memory Vocab.txt
2013-12-15 22:28:25
AP Psychology
Memory Vocab
Show Answers:

  1. Memory
    the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
  2. Encoding
    the processing of information in the memory system, getting information into our brain
  3. Storage
    the retention of encoded information over time, retaining information
  4. Retrieval
    the process of getting information out of memory storage, getting information out of the head
  5. Connectionism
    modern model of memory which views memory as emerging from interconnected neural networks
  6. Sensory Memory
    the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
  7. Short-Term Memory
    activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
  8. Long-Term Memory
    the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
  9. Working Memory
    a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
  10. Parallel Processing
    the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain’s natural mode of information processing for many functions. Contrasts with the step-by-step serial processing of most computer and of conscious problem solving
  11. Rehearsal
    the conscious repetition of information, either yo maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
  12. Spacing Effect
    the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
  13. Testing Effect
    testing is good at helping you learn, not just assessing
  14. Serial-Position Effect
    our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
  15. Recency Effect
    recalling more recent events better
  16. Primacy Effect
    remembering the first in a list better
  17. Visual Encoding
    the encoding of picture images
  18. Acoustic Encoding
    the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
  19. Semantic Encoding
    the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
  20. Self-reference effect
    remembering descriptions given about yourself
  21. Imagery
    mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
  22. Rosy Retrospection
    forgetting the non-important parts and remembering the semantic/strong feeling parts of a memory
  23. Mnemonic
    memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
  24. Peg-Word System
    associating two words together
  25. Chunking
    organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
  26. Iconic Memory
    a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
  27. Echoic Memory
    a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 to 4 seconds
  28. Long-Term Potentiation
    an increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
  29. CREB
    a neural protein that can switch genes off or on
  30. Glutamate
    a neurotransmitter that enhances synaptic communication
  31. Deja vu
    the eerie sense that “I’ve experienced this before.” Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience or parallel processing is not in sync
  32. State-Dependent Memory
    When experiencing a situation associated with a certain emotion, we are more likely to remember the memory when feeling the same emotion
  33. Mood-Congruent
    the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood
  34. Absent-mindedness
    inattention to details leads to encoding failure
  35. Transience
    storage decay over time
  36. Blocking
    inaccessibility of stored information (it’s on the tip of my tongue)
  37. Misattribution
    confusing the source of information (remembering a dream as real life)
  38. Suggestibility
    the lingering effects of misinformation (an outside source creates false memories)
  39. Bias
    belief colored recollections/ viewing events by the way you feel now
  40. Persistence
    unwanted memories
  41. Proactive Interference
    the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
  42. Retroactive Interference
    the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
  43. Repression
    in psychoanalytic theory (Freud), the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings and memories
  44. Misinformation Effect
    incorporating misleading information into one;s memory of an event
  45. Imagination Inflation
    imagining nonexistent actions and events that create false memories
  46. Source Amnesia
    attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect is at the heart of many false memories. We retain the memory of the event, but not the context in which we required it.