Chapter 7B Thinking Problem Solving Creativity and Language Vocab.txt

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Chapter 7B Thinking Problem Solving Creativity and Language Vocab.txt
2013-12-15 22:31:27
Ap Psychology
Thinking, Problem Solving, Creativity and Language Vocab
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  1. Cognition
    the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
  2. Concept
    a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas or people
  3. Prototype
    a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides q hick and easy method for storing items into categories (as when comparing feathered creates to a prototypical bird, such as a robin)
  4. Algorithm
    a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier- but also error prone-use of heuristics
  5. Heuristic
    a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms
  6. Insight
    a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem, it contrast with strategy-based solutions
  7. Creativity
    the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
  8. Confirmation bias
    a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
  9. Fixation
    the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set
  10. Mental Set
    a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
  11. Functional Fixedness
    the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
  12. Representativeness Heuristic
    judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to match particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information.
  13. Availability Heuristic
    estimating the likelihood of events based on their presence in our memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.
  14. Overconfidence
    the tendency to be more certain than correct—to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.
  15. Belief perseverance
    clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
  16. Intuition
    an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning.
  17. Framing
    the way an issue is posed; how an issue is presented can significantly affect decisions and judgments.
  18. Language
    our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.
  19. Phoneme
    in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
  20. Morpheme
    in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix).
  21. Grammar
    in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.
  22. Semantics
    the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning.
  23. Syntax
    the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.
  24. Babbling stage
    beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.
  25. One-word stage
    the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
  26. Two-word stage
    beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly statements made up of only a couple of words.
  27. Telegraphic speech
    early speech stage in which a child speaks using mostly nouns and verbs such as "go car"
  28. Linguistic determinism
    Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.