psychological disorders

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  1. Schizophrenia: pos. symptoms
    • presence or exaggeration of behaviors 
    • ->delusions, hallucinations, thought disorder, bizarre behavior
    • often acute
    • respond to anti-psychotic medications
  2. Schizophrenia: neg. symptoms
    • absence of normal behaviors
    • ->lack of emotion
    • ->inability to experience pleasure 
    • ->lack of motivation
    • ->poverty of speech
    • ->impaired attention
    • tend to be chronic 
    • patients typically have:
    • ->poorer adjustment to prior onset
    • ->poorer prognosis is after diagnosis 
    • ->tissue defect, intellectual and cognitive deficits
  3. onset of Schizophrenia in men vs. women
    • equal onset
    • ->men in teen/20's
    • ->women a decade later
  4. heredity of Schizophrenia
    • higher prevalence among relative with Schizophrenia
    • identical twins are 3x more likely to get Schizophrenia as fraternal twins
    • ->estimated between 0.60 and 0.90
  5. vulnerability model
    • genes only determine a vulnerability for Schizophrenia
    • ->threshold of causes forces must be exceeded
    • ->environmental challenges combine with genetic vulnerability 
    • environmental influences work in park by epigenetic means, up-regulating and down-regulating gene functioning
  6. vulnerability model figure
    Image Upload
  7. neurotransmitters that serve roles schizophrenia
    • excess dopamine causes this disease
    • ->blocking dopamine receptors, useful treatment
    • amphetamine=similar effects
    • some schizophrenic's are deficient in dopamine
  8. glutamate theory
    • due to reduced glutamate activity
    • PCP blocks NMDA glutamate (resembles schizo)
    • glycine activates the NMDA receptor
    • ->improves negative and cognitive systems
    • atypical anti-psychotic decrease reuptake
    • dopamine imbalance may be result of reduced glutamate activity in PFC
  9. hypofrontality (brain anomaly)
    • decline in frontal lobe function
    • wisconsin card sorting test requires reversing strategies 
    • ->schizo. perform poorly on this task
  10. winter birth effect
    • -environmental cause
    • ->more schizo. born in winter
    • 2nd trimester in fall/early winter; high incidence of infectious disease
    • schizo. births doubled following the 1944-1945 food blockade of the Netherlands
    • ->supported by study in china
    • risk for schizo. increase by 2/3 if father is older than 50 at conception
  11. affective disorders
    • serotonin, when imbalanced within the brain, lead to and influence the mood and onset of depression 
    • when one/two copies of the "short" allele of the 5-HTTLPR serotonin transporter gene are in someones brain, that person has an increased vulnerability 
    • ->15% reduction in gray matter in amygdala
    • ->25% reduction in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex
    • increase in stress
  12. bipolar heritability
    • 85% and 93%
    • 69 genes identified
    • many genes overlap with those in substance abuse
  13. monoamine hypothesis
    • depression involves reduced activity at Ne and 5-H+ synapses
    • effective antidepressant drugs increase activity of one or both transmitters 
    • -monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors 
    • -trycyclic antidepressants
    • -atypical or 2nd generation antidepressants

    synaptic effects take hours; improvement takes weeks
  14. monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors
    block the destruction of excess monoamine's in the terminals
  15. tricyclic antidepressants
    block reuptake at the synapse
  16. atypical OR 2nd generation antidepressants
    • affect a single transmitter
    • ex: prozac is a single selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
  17. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
    • 70 to 130 volts to head = convulsive seizure
    • therapeutic effects rapid
    • reserved for special cases
    • increase in sensitivity of serotonin receptors
    • sensistivity of pre-synaptic autorecptors is reduced
    • ->increased norepinephrine and dopamine relseased 
    • brain excitability decreases due to an increase in GABA
  18. anxiety
    • involved deficits in GABA and serotonin 
    • ->treated with antidepressants that modulate serotonin
    • brain areas involved:
    • ->amygdala
    • ->locus coeruleus
    • ->parahippocampal gyrus (panic)
    • ->regions of the PFC
  19. PTSD: post traumatic stress disorder
    • recurring thoughts and images, nightmares, overreacting to stimuli 
    • triggered by combat and sexual assault
    • vulnerability factors
    • ->smaller hippocampus
    • ->heritable about 30%
    • treatment
    • ->exposure therapy; extinction process
    • ->fear erasure and virtual reality 
    • females are 4x more likely to develop
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psychological disorders
2013-12-16 05:22:28
NSB final

final exam
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