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- -China clay. Used in fillers in plastics, paints, pharmaceuticals, etc.
- Consists of kaolinite with minor amounts of other phyllosilicates. May form in place either by hydrothermal or weathering processes may be transported to a site mixed with other weathered products.
Used for ceramic industry providing strength prior to ceramic firing, particularly in sanitary ware. Also floor tiles, bricks, etc.
Transported, non-marine sedimentary deposits derived from primary sources.
- Used in oilfield and mineral drilling fluids, cat litter, hydraulic barriers (waste disposal, mine dump, etc)
- formed from weathering of glassy volcanic tuffs deposited in a marine environment
- Two varieties:
- Sodium bentonite (swelling property)
- Calcium bentonite (non-swelling property)
Bentonites sodium vs. calcium
- Sodium: strong expansion properties
- Calcium: occur in mississippi and texas, do not have strong expansion properties.
Usage: food production, sulfer production, fire control (extinguisher), pollution control (binding agents for oil on water, Cleaning, ore production, waste disposal, ceramics, etc.
Lac de Gras
Diamond mine which located in Canada.
Marble- used in monuments (Lincoln monument), does not wear well (soft).
Slate- roofing slates, flagstone, billiard tops, mantles, furniture, lots of waste (due to fine breakage), waste is used for rock wool.
Pumice- Volcanic product associated with ash-flow tuffs or vents. Used in cleaners (polishing compounds, rubber erasers, etc)
- used for collection of low-level radioactive wastes and sewage treatment (to treat ammonias)
- can control fertilizer release
- dehydration-rehydration in concretes
- filler in high-quality paper
- animal nutrition
- Gibbsite and Boehmite-diaspore
- blanket, pocket, detrital, and interlayered deposits
- Ultramafic rocks: diamond, sapphire, ruby, olivine
- Pegmatites: greatest variety of gem minerals
- Organic: amber, pearls, jet
- In situ crystallization of silicate melt in local pockets, leading to coarsely-crystalline products (aquamarine, tourmaline, amazonite); yields coarsely-crystalline muscovite in some granitic melts.
Ultramafic igneous rock derived from mantle components. Requires rapid rise to near Earth's surface so the diamond will be presrved; slow rise of magma yields graphite or industrial grade diamond
Weighting agent in gas and oil field drilling muds and as downhole flow and bit lubrication. Some barite is used as a filler, extending or weighting agent in paints, plastics, and rubber. Also used in brake and clutch pads.
- five types of deposits:
- Replacement, cement deposits, fissure veins, residual, sedimentary
Used as catalyst in manufacture of high octane fuels, enamel stripping, glass etching, polishing, electroplating, refrigerants, solvants, teflon etc.