sleep and consciousness

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sleep and consciousness
2013-12-16 01:46:28
NSB final

final exam
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  1. functions of sleep
    • restorative
    • adaptive
  2. restorative sleep
    species with higher metabolic rates sleep more
  3. adaptive sleep
    • amount of sleep depends on:
    • availability of food
    • safety considerations
    • ->predators and animals that can hide, sleep a lot
    • -> animals without shelter and feed often sleep little
  4. performance after deprivation
    • performance declines in shift workers
    • long-term deprivation, performance declines at night and recovers during the day
  5. night time accidents
    • driving accidents peak at 2am
    • ->Chernobyl meltdown 
    • ->exxon valdez oil spill
  6. eastward travel
    • west coast teams playing in the east
    • staying up late vs. going to bed early
  7. circadian rhythm
    • rhythm about a day in length
    • main biological clock is suprachiasmoatic nucleus (SCN)
    • ->lesioning SCN in rats abolishes 24 hr rhythms of sleep, activity, body temp and drinking
    • ->SCN entrained to day-night cycle by zeitgebers "time-givers" (most important is light)
  8. melatonin
    • secreted by pineal gland
    • hormone that induces sleep
  9. ultradian rhythms
    • shorter than a day in length
    • ->hormone production, urinary outputs, alertness, day dreaming and EEG activity follow this
    • ->basic rest and actvity cycle is 90-100 min. long
    • cycle extends into sleep, with 90 min. variations in arousal
  10. EEG waves
    • awake: miss of Alpha and Beta waves
    • sleep stage 1: theta waves
    • sleep stage 2: sleep spindles and K-complex
    • sleep stage 3 and 4: delta waves

    after stage 4 sleeper moves through stages in reverse, not returning to stage one, instead entering REM
  11. EEG waves
    • delta: 1-4 Hz
    • theta: 4-8 Hz
    • alpha: 8-13 Hz
    • beta: 13-30 Hz
    • gamma: 30-90 Hz

  12. EEG waves:
    • sleep spindles
    • stage 2: brief bursts of 12-14Hz waves
    • k-complex
    • stage 2: sharp, high amp waves, 1/min
  13. Rapid Eye Movement
    • REM
    • eyes dart back and forth horizontally
    • most dreaming occurs during this
    • non-rem dreams are less vivid
    • promotes neural development
    • ->50% of sleep in infancy
    • encourages differentiation, maturation and myelination in higher brain center
  14. activation-synthesis hypothesis
    • dreams area by-product
    • forebrain combines info from brainstem
    • invlved memory consolidation and sensory input
    • ->doesn't include "meaning" in dreams
  15. reverse learning hypothesis
    brain achieves efficiency by purging memories during REM sleep
  16. preoptic area of the hypothalamus
    • regulates temperature, inhibits arousal areas
    • ->locus coeruleus and raprie nuclei
    • ->warmth induces sleep
  17. sleep and consciousness
    • lucid dreamers are semi-conscious
    • sleepwalkers in non-REM sleep can drive a car and eat
  18. consciousness
    • state: a person is conscious or unconscious 
    • indicates a sense of awareness of something
    • varies in level
    • ->coma, sleep, alert wakefulness
    • altered states 
    • ->hypnosis, trances, meditative states
    • most researchers agree that consciousness  involves:
    • ->awareness (content)
    • ->attention (process)
    • ->a sense of self
  19. brain areas involved in awareness
    • prefrontal cortex (relationship between stimuli)
    • hippocampus (declarative learning) 
    • parietal lobes (locating objects in space for combining features into a conscious whole)
  20. binding characteristics of awareness
    • synchronization of neural activity
    • synchronization: activity in gamma range waves
    • ex: moving object synchronizaes between V1 and V5 (movement)
  21. attention
    • process involves focusing on some neural inputs to exclusion of others
    • ACC plays executive role in allocating attention
    • ->20% of ACC neurons increase or decrease firing during attention-demanding tasks
    • ->ACC active during stroop test (color test)
  22. sense of self
    • identity (I)
    • sense of agency, attribution/effect to self
    • mirror recognition studies
    • ->sense of self develops about 15 months in age
    • some animals can recognize selves in a mirror as well