Discuss how systematic error can affect accuracy and precision.
Systematic error can occur in several ways, e.g. in the equipment, the way the equipment was used or by the observer making the measurement. Systematic errors can be caused when instruments are not used under normal conditions, e.g. temperature and humidity can affect measuring devices. If the instrument is used correctly in adverse conditions, measurements can have high precision but reduced accuracy. Systematic errors occur if the instrument is not correctly zeroed, or the observer consistently misreads the instrument e.g. reads the wrong part of the meniscus. Accuracy is low, but results can have high precision.