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3D Graphics Animation Workflow, IN ORDER:
- a. Modeling
- b. Texturing
- c. Lighting
- d. Animating
- e. Rendering
is a pictorial output of a 3D scene or object.
Features that control the effects and quality of rendering:
- a. Materials
- b. Lighting
- c. Oversampling
- d. Shadows
You can control the way an object appears by applying
color and textures.
provide realism with added effects.
Material and Texture Controls
- a. Glossiness (specularity)
- b. Self-emitting lighting characteristics
- c. Transparency
- d. Pattern repetition
Ray-tracing can provide:
- a. reflection (mirror) effects
- b. refraction (transparency) effects
Textures can be made from any ________ or ______object in an image-editing or painting-type program.
scanned photograph, drawn
Blender also has many built-in ____ that can simulate a variety of surface characteristics such as____,____,____,____ and _____?
texture generators, wood, marble, clouds, waves and surface roughness.
Lighting provides the realism to your scene through _________and ________.
reflections and shadows.
You can control the ___________. Some lights can give a “fog” or “dusty” look with a ______or ______effect. ________can also be set.
- type of light, intensity and color.
- halo or volume lighting
- Illumination distances
Your camera is your _______ for the scene. Just like a real camera, you can control lens length to achieve ________. __________can also be set to control how far and near the camera sees. _________can be controlled using nodes.
- close-ups or wide angles.,
- Clipping distance
An animation is a series of __________ that form a movie. The quality of your movie is controlled by all of the above mentioned features including _______,_______, and _________.The most common method of animation is called ________.
- rendered images
- frames per second (fps), output size, file type and compression.
Key frames are created at various points in the animation while the computer generates all of the _______ between the two keys. Basic animation options include changing _______,_______ and _______ of objects.
- transition frames
- size, rotation and location
U.S. and Japan video standard of 30 fps
Movie standard of 24 fps
European video standard of 25 fps
We typically use a frame rate of ________ depending on computer speed or if we plan to save the file to DVD.
is placed at the beginning and end of a desired move, size change or rotation of an object.
In most animation programs, a camera can follow a _______ or ______ (or both) as it moves.
path or object
Output movie formats :
- a. Mpeg
- b. Apple Quicktime
- c. Windows Avi
AVI formats can be compressed using a variety of compressors called
__________ allows you to add physical properties to your objects and use the keyboard and other features to control them. You can create ______ change ______ control_______set _______ and ______ in x, y, and z planes and create _______with other objects within the scene.
- Real-time animation,
- dampening (friction),
- force and torque
Blender allows you to use the __________to create animation tracks.
_______ toggles between ____________ and _______ mode.
- TAB Key,
- edit mode (vertex editing),
- object select
global UNDO command. By default, this command can undo up to 32 steps.
toggles from wireframe to solid.
toggles a texture/shaded view.
rotates an object or selected vertex.
scales a selected object or vertex.
grabs or moves the object or selected vertex.
in Edit Mode, select all vertices. “A” toggles between select and clear.
plays animation in selected window.
After an object has been resized or rotated, this can reset the object data to 1 or 0.
Brings up a “Specials” menu while in edit mode of specific edit mode options.
duplicates or copies selected objects or selected vertices.
While in edit mode, selected vertices can be extruded by pressing ___.
The ___ key (not zero) will put you into proportional vertex editing while in edit mode. Proportional editing now also works in object mode.
gives you a box (window drag) to select multiple objects. In edit mode, works the same to select multiple vertices.
gives you a circle select in edit mode that can be sized by scrolling the mouse wheel. Press LMB to select, press wheel to deselect. Right mouse click or “Esc” to exit.
brings up the tools menu where you can add meshes, cameras, lights, etc.
- 1 – front Cntrl+1 – rear/back
- 3 – right side Cntrl+3 – left side
- 7 – top Cntrl+7 – bottom
- 2 – rotate down along x-axis
- 4 – rotate left along z-axis
- 8 – rotate up along x-axis
- 6 – rotate right along z-axis
- 5 – perspective/orthogonal view
- 0 – camera view
- . (period) – centers the selected object
- / (forward slash)
- – zooms in/out on the selected object
- + (plus) – zoom in
- - (minus) – zoom out
- Shift+F – move the cursor to fly around the scene (camera fly)
Navigating by Mouse
- Left Mouse Button (LMB) – manipulate
- Right Mouse Button (RMB) – select
- Center Wheel – zoom/rotate
- Shift + Center Wheel – pan
- Shift + Right Mouse Button – make multiple selections
are used to advance frames in animation.
goes 1 frame at a time
goes 10 frames at a time.
While in edit mode, pressing ___ will separate selected vertices. In object mode, pressing P will cause you to enter into the game (real-time) mode. Press Esc to exit game mode.
creates or breaks child/parent relationships. To create C/P relationships, hold down shift key and select child first, then parent. Hit Ctrl P. To clear a relationship, do the same except hit Alt P.
In Object Mode, brings up the Single-User menu to unlink materials, animations (IPOs), etc. for linked or copied objects.
moves selected objects to other layers.
mirrors an object. Select “M”, then X,Y,or Z to mirror on that axis.
brings up the numeric information on a selected object (location, rotation and size). Information can then be changed in the panel.
joins selected objects together.
key makes a face in edit mode of the selected vertices. You can only select 3-4 vertices at a time to make a face. By selecting 2 vertices and pressing F will close shape.
will Face or Fill a closed set of selected vertices.
brings up a “Face Specials” menu with other face options.
Camera Flying is enabled and will cause the camera to “fly” through the scene.
delete selected objects, vertices or faces.
“X” or Delete
In edit mode, K and left mouse button will allow you to slice faces.
In edit mode, will bring up options to slice or cut faces.
In both edit and object modes, this will give you options to locate objects or the cursor to assist in precise placement.
- F1 - Load File F11 - Last Render
- F2 - Save File F12 - Render
- F3 - Repeat History
Key is used to insert animation keys for various things. Objects can be animated with basic Rotation, Location and Size keys and combinations thereof.
opens the Toolbox at the side of your viewport.
used to create a Track To Constraint to make one object follow another (like a camera with a target).
used to Save your Blender file
used to convert meshes, text and curves. For example, text can be converted into a mesh for other transform options.
toggles between multiple screens to full screen of active view port. Can also use “Ctrl”-”Up Arrow” to do the same thing.
If using multiple cameras, this will switch to the selected camera. (Number pad “0”)
Meshes can be controlled by “bones” or armatures.
the mesh to the armature using the armature option.
puts you into Pose mode for manipulating armatures.
Blender accepts many different file formats through the import/export commands. When inserting other Blender files or objects into another scene, use the APPEND option from the file menu and select the appropriate options. Multiple objects can be selected with Shift-Right Mouse Button.
To create _______, move your cursor to the upper- right corner of an existing viewport. When your cursor turns into a “+” over the tab triangle, press LMB and drag to split viewport area. To join areas, repeat the process.
The Default Blender Scene consists of the following:
- Windows :
- a. Information Window d. Outliner Window
- b. 3D Window e. Properties Window
- c. Timeline Window
- Objects :
- a. Camera
- b. Lamp / Light
- c. Cube / Box
If you put an object in a layer that is turned off, it will ________. To turn that layer visible, click ____ on that button. To turn on multiple layers, hold down _____ and click on the buttons. Layers containing objects will display a ____.
- a. File Browser
- b. Info
- c. User Preferences
- d. Outliner
- e. Properties
- f. Logic Editor
- g. Node Editor
- h. Video Sequence Editor
- i. UV/Image Editor
- j. Graph Editor
- k. Timeline
- l. 3D Window
usually comes up automatically as needed
contains menus, screen, scene and render engine options
can be selected from the “File” menu, where you can customize Blender to react to your particular needs.
displays all objects in your scene and settings
once called the buttons window, where most settings and scene options occur
game and real-time animation controls
post-production effects for a scene
compile final movies with images, effects and sounds
Video Sequence Editor
setting textures for games and movies
replaces IPO window, displays animation data
animation timeline with display and record controls
your basic 3D scene window to work in
- a. 3D View Full d. Default g. Scripting
- b. Animation e. Game Logic h. UV Editing
- c. Compositing f. Motion Tracking i. Video Editing
If you would like your________to be in place every time you open Blender, you can save them in the ________ by clicking the _______ button or by pressing _____.
- customized setting,
- User Preferences Window,
- Save As Default,
User Preferences Tabs:
- a. Editing Tab
- b. Input Tab
- c. Add-Ons Tab
- d. Themes Tab
- e. File Tab
- f. System Tab
The open command can be used to import _____ and ______files from other programs. These are generic file interchange extensions that most programs can work with.
VRML stand for ____ , and before 1995 known as _____. This is the standard file format for representing 3D vector graphics commonly called ____ and have the ____extension.
- Virtual Reality Modeling Language,
- Virtual Reality Mark-up Language,
DXF stands for AutoCAD’s
Drawing Exchange Format or Drawing Interchange Format.
When you need to insert elements from one Blender (.blend) file into another one, you need to use the _______command from the file pull-down menu. While in Append, you need to navigate to the Blender file you wish to insert from, then select what you want to append into the open file.
You can append anything from cameras, lights meshes, materials, textures, scenes and objects. For most purposes, use the _____ option.
The____option allows you to link to another Blender file rather than inserting it into the open file and also found in the File menu. This option allows for changes to the linked file that will be automatically _____ when the other file is opened.
If you plan to open this file on other computers, you will need to select the __________ option in the File menu under ______.
- “Pack into .blend file”,
- “External Data”.
_______ and ______ are not automatically included in your Blender file in order to keep the file size down. Every time your file opens, it looks for the textures and sounds and places them into your model. If it can’t find the files, you won’t have any textures and sounds. If you ______, those files are included with the .blend file so they can be opened anywhere, however, your file size may _____.
- Textures, sounds
- pack data,
When data is packed, a small ______ shows up on the top of your screen letting you know that the file is packed on older versions of Blender (not 2.5 versions). You can also _______ to bring the file size back down.
package, unpack data
If a file format isn't available, check in the _______ section in the User Preferences menu. There may be an _______ written for your file type, but not turned on.
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