Physiological Psych: Lectures 18 19 20

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Physiological Psych: Lectures 18 19 20
2013-12-16 22:30:43

Exam 3
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  1. 3 functional zones of the frontal lobe
    • prefrontal cortex (most anterior region – cognition, planning, etc…)
    • premotor cortex (anterior to motor cortex - movement)
    • primary motor cortex (or precentral gyrus - movement)
  2. _____ is important for Working Memory
    Prefrontal Cortex
  3. What is working memory? 3
    • Coordinated, temporary storage of information in various sites in the cerebral cortex. 
    • allows you to perform calculations in your head, to read, and solve problems. 
    • Intelligence may be linked to working memory capacity.
  4. Working Memory for Object Identification 3
    • can hold an object or series of objects in mind
    • thus can put a series of objects in order (face recognition)
    • IT cortex (visual object recognition) and PFC (storage centers)
  5. Working Memory for Spatial Location 2
    • holding in memory the spatial location of several objects at the same time (playing chess)
    • right hemispheric regions are involved: posterior parietal, hippocampus, PFC
  6. Working Memory for Verbal Information 4
    • holding words in mind (reading or listening to someone speaking)
    • Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas (speech centers in the left hemisphere)
    • anterior cingulate cortex (in medial PFC)
    • left premotor cortex (rehearsing verbal material sub-vocally)
  7. 2 functions of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex
    • activated when working memory is used
    • coordinates working memory
  8. Short-term memory (working memory) 4
    • limited memory system (can hold 7 pieces of information)
    • holds information effortlessly for 30 seconds before decaying
    • can hold information longer with rehearsal
    • Donald Hebb
  9. Consolidation (& Reconsolidation)
    the shift of a memory from short-term to long-term form
  10. Long-term memory 3
    • memory system capable of storing large amounts of information for long periods of time
    • results from structural changes to memory circuits
    • two main long-term memory systems: declarative & nondeclarative
  11. Declarative Memory 3
    • Also called explicit memory
    • conscious retention of facts and events
    • Requires hippocampus for initial storage
  12. patients with hippocampal damage exhibit
    amnesia.  What are the 2 types of amnesia?
    • retrograde amnesia (backward)
    • anterograde amnesia (forward)
  13. Retrograde Amnesia
    cannot remember events just prior to injury
  14. Anterograde Amnesia 2
    • cannot create new declarative memories
    • cannot remember events after brain damage
  15. 2 Forms of Declarative Memory
    • Episodic
    • Semantic
  16. Episodic Memory 3
    • memory for events or episodes in one’s own life (what one did yesterday or a meeting you had recently)
    • such memories are organized in time and identified by a particular context
    • also includes perceptions (can visualize the surroundings while recalling the information)
  17. Semantic Memory 2
    • general knowledge or learned facts (knowing the multiplication tables, history, geography, etc…)
    • does not include information about the context in which facts were learned
  18. 2 Effects of Emotional Arousal on Long-Term Memory
    • Memory is greater for emotionally charged events (easier to remember where you were on 9/11/2001 than other 9/11s)
    • When aroused, your body releases hormones (epinephrine, which activates the amygdala which enhances consolidation of memory; drugs that block effects of epinephrine interfere with enhanced memory formation
  19. Nondeclarative Memory 3
    • Also called implicit or procedural memory
    • Involves nonconscious memory for learned behaviors
    • Does NOT require the hippocampus - instead, involves cerebellum and corticostriatal system
  20. One example of nondeclarative memory is the _____.  List brain regions involved.
    • Priming Effect
    • improved ability to recognize particular stimuli after experience with them
    • e.g., word-stem completion task
    • involves posterior parietal and occipital cortex for the visual information and Broca’s area for conceptual information
  21. Alzheimer’s disease 3
    • neurodegenerative disease characterized by severe memory loss
    • Diagnosed by presence of plaques and tangles which first form in temporal lobes and spread throughout forebrain
    • initially, the disease destroys synapses and then eventually kills the neurons in the later stages of AD
  22. 4 Disorders Associated with Prefrontal Cortex Damage
    • Dysexecutive Syndrome
    • Disinhibition
    • Emotional Impairments
    • Difficulty Planning
  23. Dysexecutive Syndrome 2
    • inability to coordinate complex behaviors with respect to goals and  task specific constraints
    • might stir coffee cup first and then add cream to the coffee
  24. Disinhibition 3
    • lack of behavioral control
    • impulsive, quick to anger, prone to rude childish remarks
    • can be tested using the Stroop Test or Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
  25. Emotional Impairments
    indifferent and apathetic to their own situation and to the needs of others
  26. Difficulty Planning 2
    • unable to organize behavior to plan several steps in advance
    • assessed by Tower of Hanoi Test or Multiple Errands Task
  27. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
    Model system for studying associative learning (implicit & explicit)
  28. Delay Conditioning 4
    • Conditioned Stimulus and Unconditioned Stimulus are contiguous (overlap in time or simultaneous)
    • requires fewer training trials
    • depends on brainstem and cerebellar circuitry
    • implicit learning
  29. Trace Conditioning 4
    • Conditioned Stimulus and Unconditioned Stimulus are discontiguous (separated)
    • requires many more training trials 
    • still depends on brainstem and cerebellum to elicit a CR but also depends on hippocampus to learn
    • explicit learning
  30. How are Synapses plastic?
    • they can be added or removed 
    • they can be strengthened or weakened
    • Synaptic Plasticity has two basic forms: 
    • 1. long-term potentiation or LTP (strengthening)
    • 2. long-term depression or LTD (weakening)
  31. LTP 5
    • a form of cellular memory based on glutamate
    • first discovered in Hippocampus
    • input-specific
    • Associative 
    • long lasting
  32. Induction of LTP Requires Strong Postsynaptic _____
  33. 3 Steps of LTP Induction
    • 1. Glutamate is released & binds to AMPA, depolarizing postsynaptic membrane (because sodium enters) and activates NMDA as well
    • 2. Calcium enters postsynaptic cell when NMDA are activated (Mg unblocks)
    • 3. Cell fires action potential
  34. insertion of AMPA receptors or strengthening of synapse strength
  35. removal of AMPA receptors or weakening of synapse strength