Physiological Psych: Lectures 21 22 23 24

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nthor
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253460
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Physiological Psych: Lectures 21 22 23 24
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2013-12-16 22:34:05
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Physio
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Exam 3
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  1. What is an emotion? 3
    • cognitive experience accompanied by an affective reaction and physiological response
    • involves activation of the sympathetic nervous system
    • causes somatic nervous system to contract facial muscles
  2. James-Lange Theory 2
    • Stimulus produces physiological response and then emotion
    • 1. see bear 2. run away 3. fear
  3. Cannon-Bard Theory 2
    • Stimulus produces emotion and then physiological response
    • 1. see bear  2. fear  3. run away
  4. Schachter-Singer Theory (2 factor theory)
    Experience of an emotion requires physiological arousal and attribution of the arousal to an appropriate stimulus
  5. Negative emotions 2
    • involve “fight-or-flight” or “self-preservation” responses
    • amygdala (medial temporal lobe near hippocampus)
  6. Role of the Amygdala and Negative Emotions 4
    • Lateral nucleus of amygdala (LA) receives sensory information
    • LA sends information to central nucleus (ACe)
    • ACe projects to brainstem causing autonomic arousal
    • ACe projects to hypothalamus to activate stress response
  7. _____ damage to amygdala causes _____
    • Bilateral; Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
    • loss of fear
  8. What is Urbach-Wiethe disease? 2
    • Bilateral amygdala damage
    • inability to store declarative memories of emotionally arousing events
  9. 3 things associated with aggression
    • Head trauma 
    • Low levels of Serotonin (5-HT)
    • High levels of Norepinephrine
  10. Serotonin transporter gene has 2 common alleles.  What are they?
    short and long
  11. short allele is associated with _____ transporters, thus slower reuptake and increased _____
    • fewer
    • 5HT
  12. People carrying at least one short allele are more likely to... 3
    • show higher anxiety
    • develop an affective disorder (depression)
    • greater activation of right amygdala in response to faces
  13. 3 Forebrain Structures involved with fear
    • Prefrontal Cortex
    • Amygdala
    • Hypothalamus
  14. Role of Prefrontal Cortex in fear 2
    • interprets meaning of stimuli
    • organizes fear response
  15. Role of Amygdala in fear 3
    • initiates fear response
    • activates sympathetic nervous system
    • activates the motor system
  16. Role of Hypothalamus in fear 2
    • activates body’s stress response 
    • HPA axis (release of steroid hormones)
  17. Effects of opiates on fear 2
    • blocks pain signals 
    • decreases aggressive behaviors
  18. Effects of Benzodiazepine drugs on fear 3
    • anxiolytic (anxiety reducing)
    • produce feeling of calmness
    • reduces defensive behaviors
  19. Disorders Associated with Negative Emotions 6
    • Intermittent explosive disorder
    • Self-mutilation
    • Generalized Anxiety Disorder
    • Panic Disorder
    • Phobias
    • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders
  20. 3 Treatments of Anxiety Disorders
    • Beta Blockers 
    • Benzodiazepines
    • SSRIs
  21. How do Beta Blockers treat anxiety? 2
    • block b-adrenergic receptors
    • decrease NE activity
  22. How do Benzodiazepines treat anxiety?
    increase inhibitory effects of GABA
  23. How do SSRIs treat anxiety? 2
    • keep 5-HT around longer (prevents uptake)
    • used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder
  24. Positive emotions involve the stimulation of the _____ _____ pathway
    mesolimbic dopamine
  25. _____ and _____ discovered this pleasure system
    • Olds and Milner
    • stimulated medial forebrain bundle (MFB) in rats
  26. In humans stimulation of MFB produces _____
    pleasure
  27. What is the Cascade Theory of Reward for positive emotions? 4 steps
    • Attempts to explain how several transmitter systems interact to produce pleasure
    • 1. Serotonin release in hypothalamus causes release of endorphins in VTA
    • 2. Which inhibits GABA (which normally inhibits DA)
    • 3. This inhibition of GABA results in release of dopamine by VTA neurons
    • 4. Pleasure results from dopamine release and binding in nucleus accumbens and  hippocampus
  28. Reward Deficiency Syndrome 2
    • Decreased activity of neurons in nucleus accumbens and hippocampus
    • Results in Dysphoria, negative emotions, and cravings for substances that enhance dopamine levels (drugs, gambling)

  29. Addiction 3
    • loss of control of intake of a particular substance
    • psychological dependence (craving)
    • physical dependence (withdrawal)
  30. Hedonic Homeostatic Dysregulation -addicts are always in one of these 3 stages:
    • 1. Preoccupation-anticipation (high DA, opioids, & stress hormones)
    • 2. Binge-intoxication (DA and opioid levels remain high via drug)
    • 3. Withdrawal-negative affect (decreased DA & opioids, increased stress hormones)
  31. Stress 2
    • A state of imbalance that disrupts homeostasis in the nervous system 
    • Imbalance produced by aversive stimuli or stressors which evoke a stress response
  32. Stress activates the _____ axis. What 3 brain parts?
    • HPA
    • hypothalamus, pituitary gland, adrenal cortex
  33. After stress activates the HPA axis, the _____ gland secretes _____
    pituitary; ACTH
  34. After the pituitary gland secretes ACTH into the blood stream, the _____ cortex secretes _____, which elevates blood levels/ sugar
    adrenal; cortisol
  35. cortisol increases _____ availability and inhibits _____ system
    glucose; immune
  36. What test is used to test HPA axis
    function?
    Dexamethasone Suppression Test
  37. Depressed individuals often have _____ (excess cortisol release).
    hypercortisolism
  38. Acute Stress 4
    • brief in duration 
    • sympathetic response
    • activation of PVN and HPA axis
    • immune system suppression
  39. Chronic Stress 4
    • occurs repeatedly 
    • suppresses immune system
    • HPA axis remains high (elevated cortisol levels)
    • may damage hippocampal neurons
  40. Psychoneuroimmunology
    Study of the interactions between the immune system and the nervous system & behavior
  41. 3 Disorders Associated with Stress
    • PTSD
    • Major Depressive Disorder 
    • Fatigue Disorders
  42. Schizophrenia
    disorganization of associations, which results in disconnected thoughts, words, and emotions
  43. 3 Clinical symptoms of schizophrenia
    • negative 
    • cognitive
    • positive
  44. Dopamine Hypothesis of Schizophrenia 2
    • Drugs that block DA receptors alleviate positive symptoms
    • Drugs that stimulate DA produce positive symptoms
  45. In schizophrenia, the _____ system is overactive and _____ system is underactive
    Mesolimbic; mesocortical
  46. Major Depressive Disorder
    lethargy and diminished interest in activities
  47. _____ Hypothesis is most commonly accepted explanation for depression
    Monoamine
  48. Bipolar Disorder
    cycle between symptoms of depression and mania

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